Mao_Asif_Attawala (Consolidation and Maintenance of Power (Cult of…
Consolidation and Maintenance of Power
It was led by Deng Xiaoping, and it was swung into action
in July 1957. The exact numbers it affected are not known but, using the familiar methods of struggle meetings, hundreds of thousands of intellectuals were identified as rightists. The Anti-Rightist taught China that criticism of the party, and particularly of Mao himself, was not permitted.
In a private letter to Mao, Peng expressed
his concerns about the economic disasters befalling China. Mao distributed the letter to all the members of the conference and turned on Peng and took his comments as a personal attack on himself and removed Peng from his post as Minister of Defence.
'Three Antis' movement and was directed against party members, government officials and business owners. The 'Five Antis' movement, which targeted cheating on government contracts, stealing state economic information, tax evasion, theft of state property and bribery.
Businesses were categorized according to the
seriousness of their crimes and punishments were meted out accordingly. The result was that state revenue increased and inflation was reduced. More importantly, the government had brought yet another section of Chinese society directly under its control.
In the first stage of the GPCR, as the cult of Mao steadily grew, millions of students rampaged across China. They caused a tremendous amount of damage to churches.libraries, museums and temples, and effectively dosed down schools and universities for months
The cost to China of the Cultural Revolution economically and socially was incalculable and up to 100 million people suffered as a result of it.
Cult of Personality
Little Red book
Marriage reform Policy
Mao gained the support of many women who had been ignored by his opposition.
In 1965 the army had been turned into a propaganda organ, extolling Mao's virtue and helping to create the cult of Mao.
The Hundred Flowers campaign
Its context was to encourage debate in fields of art, literature and science. The idea behind it was to promote progress in these fields by allowing criticism and some freedom of expression, through which the clashing new ideas would bring improvements that would move China forward. privileges party members were given, among many other things. The epee was horrified and the party were shocked at the volume and nature of the criticisms that followed
All over China criticism was levelled at individual members of the CPC, at CPC authoritarian attitudes, at the economic situation and the poor standard of living in China, at corruption, at the closing off of China from foreign contacts and at the extensive and within a month it had been decided to end the Hundred Flowers Campaign.
Aims and Results of Policies
Chinese Constitution !954
State to be overseen by NPC that would be elected every 4 years and was on top of pyramidal system. Mao as the chairman.
cultural and social
Hundred Flowers Campaign
Approach to people of China to express criticism about the government and Mao. The idea was to promote progress in fields of art, literature and science by allowing freedom of expression. They thought that new ideas would bring new improvements to China.
The First Five Year Plan
Mao followed Stalin's Five Year plans in collectivization and industrialization. Mao's intention was to industrialize rapidly and needed Soviet technical and financial aid. The results doubled by 1956. Private businesses were owned under government control. Collectivization affected in low productivity.
Great Leap Forward 1958-62
Acted as a second Five Year Plan. He wanted to direct the population into labour-intensive industries that did not need much capital investment. By 1958, peasants were merged into 27,000 communes and 5,000 households. No private ownership of land. This led to terrible consequences for agriculture and the peasants. There were exaggerated reports to show their "hard work." There was growth but much was over reported and people began to starve
Turned to agriculture in June 1950: Aimed to redistribute all land of China. Peasants turned against their landlords who were forced to admit their crimes against peasantry. "Struggle meetings." It was a form of Rectification Campaign against traditional powerbase of China. End of 1952, almost all of land were distributed to 300 million peasants.
women and minorities
1950: Both genders were equal in a union and both had to agree to be married, not forced. Elimination of arranged marriages allowed Mao to gain support of women and life was improved for large numbers of people in China. Basic human rights were established as women were not allowed to be sold in prostitution and unwanted female babies could not be disposed of. Women could own property, but was short-lived due to First Five Year Plan policies.
With the Cultural Revolution, Mao was well-known by many people in China, even though it started off with the youngest community of China. Mao was seen as an ideal figure in the chinese society and achieved authoritarianism to a great extent as he made a comeback in the government
Emergence of Authoritarian States
Conditions of emergence
impact of war
After WWI, China had hoped to receive the province of Shangdong, however it was given to Japan and a large amount of rioting occurred; Citizens had to pay high taxes and their land was looted and pillaged by invading armies; The Warlord Era 1926-1927
People disliked western influence on Chinese culture. Landlords were only 10% of the population compared to the majority of working class and peasants.
weakness of political system
the government prior to Mao was not able to keep western influence outside of the country and the people hated the government due to this situation
Most of the land was owned by peasants which improved agriculture and production
methods of establishment
role of leaders
Chiang kai Shek was seen as a corrupt leader during the Chinese Civil War.
Focused more on peasants opposing to the working class. Established ideology at Yanan provided guidance and demonstrated that CCP believed in helping working class.
persuasion and coercion
Rectification Campaigns 1942: people who disagreed with Mao's ideologies were publicly shamed and stripped of their possessions
use of force
The Futian Incident where Mao killed around 4000 red army troops because he believed that they were plotting against him; Political purges occurred in which anyone who seemed like a threat to Mao was eliminated
Mao was seen as a powerful leader who can guide the people in the right way