Paper 1 - Section 1.4 Free will, determinism & predestination…
Paper 1 - Section 1.4
Free will, determinism & predestination
Christian views on whether God decides fate
Christ died so that all people could go to heaven
based on how we lived our lives
to obey or diobey
(all knowing) so knows who will go to Heaven or Hell
John Calvin's 'predestination'
will go to hell because they are sinful
'Elect' are guided by the Holy Spirit
Non-Religious views on whether we should be held responsible for our actions
If you are brought up with gangs you have the choice not to join them when yo get older as we have 'free will'
Jean Paul Satre
- "existance precedes essence"
Our past choices & personality limit our choice to a certain extent but we are still responsible for our action as we aren't fullyt controlled by them
- we are completely free to make our own choices in life
- e.g. if you were abused as a child you may be more likely to abuse others when you get older as you think it's good 'Apparent Goods' (Aquinas)
- e.g. born with a lack of empathy
- part of the psyche callled the 'Super Ego' is the influences of our parents
- e.g. reward & punishment of society influences the way we act
Christian views on whether we should be held responsible for our actions
(all knowing) so he knows what we are going to do, before we do it
'Reprobates' are destined for Hell as they aren't guided by the Holy Spirit
'Elect' go to heaven as they are guided by the Holy Spirit
- "Do good and avoid evil" - use reason, the Bible & the church to determine 'right' from 'wrong'
People are responsible because they are able to say sorry for their sins & seek
'forgiveness of Christ'
At the end of life you get
by God on how they have lived - God sees all people as responsible for their actions
so we have freedom over our actions
Christian Views on Predestination
with John Calvins views on Predestination
God wants people to be saved
"For God loved the world that he gave his only begotten son, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life"
Predestination means that we have
no responsablity over our actions
Those who are evil have sinful nature
Those who are good are guided by God
Why would an
(all loving) God create a reprobate & not give everyone a chance to go to heaven
Pointless trying to become a better
person if we are predestined to be the 'elect' or 'reprobates'
No 'free will'
- not free to choose differently
promised people time of purgatory so they could get to heaven quicker
Told people they couln't go to heaven without 'sacraments' - excommunication was a sentence to Hell
if you go to heaven
The reprobate wouldn't have Holy Spirit - naturally sinful
will be active in the lives of the 'elect' (people going to heaven) - helps them do good
Salvation must be a
gift from God
All people are
, therefore nobody is good enough to earn their way to heaven
Non-Christian views on Free will & Derminism
'Explain why some non-religious people believe that humans have free will & some don't?' (gmarks)
- e.g. if you were abused as a child you could be more likely to abuse others in the future
- inherited from parents
- e.g by helping someone they may help you back another time
Are choices are due to
e.g. 'I am studying A levels so that i can go to university'
Jean Paul Satre
- human essence - "existence precedes essence"
can limit freedom but in the end we are still 'responsible' for actions
- those who live in areas with gangs can choose not to join the gangs
for actions - 'liberatarianism'
Christian Views on Free Will
'If God is omnicient then do we still have free will'
Why would God give us free will if he knew it would lead to
God has a plan
- Omnicient - don't have choice over actions
- divided soul - weakened by desires of the soul
- "Do good & avoid evil", use knowledge of 'good' & 'evil'