Lymphatic/ Immune System Elina Shibata P1 (Anatomy…
Lymphatic/ Immune System Elina Shibata P1
Major Functions of the Lymphatic System
the transportation of lymph, a fluid containing infection-fighting white blood cells, throughout the body
the removal of toxins, waste and other unwanted materials from the body
Disorders of the Immune System
Immune system turns against the body's own tissues, which can lead to hypothyroidism where the thyroid does not make enough hormones for the body
Immune system produces antibodies that stimulate the thyroid gland to release excess amounts of thyroid hormone into the blood; hyperthyroidism
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
Immune system antibodies attack and destroy insulin-producing cells in the pancreas
Antigens and Antibodies
any substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies
bacteria, viruses, or fungi that cause infection and disease
immunoglobulins, Y-shaped molecules are proteins manufactured by the body
Adaptive/ Acquired Immune Defenses
Adaptive Immune Defenses
reacts specifically to pathogens
Acquired Immune Defenses
tailors its attack to a specific antigen previously encountered.
recognize attacking pathogens and fights against certain antigens or foreign substances
Innate/ Natural Immune Defenses
chemicals in the blood
immune system cells that attack foreign cells in the body
physical barriers such as skin
Innate immunity is something already present in the body
Anatomy of the Lymphatic System
mucosa associated lymphatic tissue
Major Functions of the Immune System
the bsorption of fatty acids and subsequent transport of fat, chyle, to the circulatory system
the formation of white blood cells
the removal of excess fluids, lymph, from body tissues
involves B cells that recognize antigens or pathogens that are circulating in the lymph or blood
Interleukins or helper T cells costimulate B cells. In most cases, both an antigen and a costimulator are required to activate a B cell and initiate B cell proliferation.
B cells proliferate and produce plasma cells. The plasma cells bear antibodies with the identical antigen specificity as the antigen receptors of the activated B cells. The antibodies are released and circulate through the body, binding to antigens.
Antigens bind to B cells.
B cells produce memory cells. Memory cells provide future immunity.
responds to any cell that displays aberrant MHC markers, including cells invaded by pathogens, tumor cells, or transplanted cells.
Interleukins costimulate activation of T cells
T cells proliferate, producing cytotoxic T cells. Cytotoxic T cells destroy cells displaying the antigens
Self cells or APCs displaying foreign antigens bind to T cells
T cells proliferate, producing helper T cells. Helper T cells release interleukins (and other cytokines), which stimulate B cells to produce antibodies that bind to the antigens and stimulate nonspecific agents (NK and macrophages) to destroy the antigens.