Biology revision (Organisms - Movement (to create movement., Antagonistic…
Organisms - Movement
to create movement.
Antagonistic muscle pair: Muscles working in unison
which reduces friction between them.
Cartilage: Smooth tissue found at the end of bones,
Tendons: Connect muscles to bones.
Ligaments: Connect bones in joints.
new blood cells are made.
Bone marrow: Tissue found inside some bones where
Joints: Places where bones meet.
Organisms - Cells
Muscular skeletal system: Muscles and bones working together to cause movement and support the body.
Respiratory system: Replaces oxygen and removes carbon dioxide from blood.
Circulatory system: Transports substances around the body.
Digestive system: Breaks down and then absorbs food molecules.
Reproductive system: Produces sperm and eggs, and is where the foetus develops.
Immune system: Protects the body against infections.
Cytoplasm: Jelly-like substance where most chemical processes happen.
Chloroplast: Absorbs light energy so the plant can make food.
Cell wall: Strengthens the cell. In plant cells it is made of cellulose.
Mitochondria: Part of the cell where energy is released from food molecules.
Vacuole: Area in a cell that contains liquid, and can be used by plants to keep the cell rigid and store substances.
Nucleus: Contains genetic material (DNA) which controls the cell’s activities.
Cell membrane: Surrounds the cell and controls movement of substances in and out.
Structural adaptations: Special features to help a cell carry out its functions.
Diffusion: One way for substances to move into and out of cells.
Organ: Group of different tissues working together to carry out a job.
Tissue: Group of cells of one type.
Multi-cellular: Living things made up of many types of cell.
Uni-cellular: Living things made up of one cell.
Cell: The unit of a living organism, contains parts to carry out life processes.
Fact: Plant cells also have a cell wall, chloroplasts and usually a permanent vacuole.
Fact: Both plant and animal cells have a cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria.
Skill: Use a light microscope to observe and draw cells.
There are many types of cell. Each has a different structure or feature so it can do a specific job.
carry out life processes.
Multicellular organisms are composed of cells which are organised into tissues, organs and systems to
In gas exchange, oxygen and carbon dioxide move between alveoli and the blood. Oxygen is transported to cells for aerobic respiration and carbon dioxide, a waste product of respiration, is removed from the body.
The trachea carries air from the mouth and nose to the lungs and the bronchi are two tubes which carry air to the lungs
Breathing occurs through the action of muscles in the ribcage and diaphragm. The amount of oxygen required by body cells determines the rate of breathing.
Ribs are sones which surround the lungs to form the ribcage and the diaphragm is a sheet of muscle found underneath the ribs.
Bronchioles are small tubes in the lung and alvioli are small air sacs found at the end of each bronchiole.
Lung volume is the amount of air breathed in or out.
Photosynthesis and respiration
Stomata are pores in the bottom of a leaf which open and close to let gases in and out.
Chlorophyll is the green pigment in plants and algae which absorbs light energy.
Photosynthesis is a process where plants and algae turn carbon dioxide and water into glucose and release oxygen.
Fertilisers are chemicals containing minerals that plants need to build new tissues.
That iodine is used to test for the presence of starch.
Plants have specially-adapted organs that allow them to obtain resources needed for photosynthesis.
They either use the glucose as an energy source, to build new tissue, or store it for later use.
Plants and algae do not eat, but use energy from light, together with carbon dioxide and water to make glucose (food) through photosynthesis.
Anaerobic respiration (fermentation) is releasing energy from the breakdown of glucose without oxygen, producing lactic acid (in animals) and ethanol and carbon dioxide (in plants and microorganisms).
Aerobic respiration is the breaking down glucose with oxygen to release energy and producing carbon dioxide and water.
That yeast fermentation is used in brewing and breadmaking.
Respiration is a series of chemical reactions, in cells, that breaks down glucose to provide energy and form new molecules. Most living things use aerobic respiration but switch to anaerobic respiration, which provides less energy, when oxygen is unavailable.
The stomach is a sac where food is mixed with acidic juices to start the digestion of protein and kill microorganisms. The small intestine is the upper part of the intestine where digestion is completed and nutrients are absorbed by the blood and that the large intestine is the lower partfrom which water is absorbed and where faeces are formed.
Protein is a nutrient your body uses to build new tissue for growth and repair. Sources are meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, beans, nuts and seeds.
Lipids (fats and oils) are a source of energy, found in butter, milk, eggs, nuts.
Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of energy. There are two types: simple (sugars) and complex (starch)
Parts of plants that cannot be digested, which helps the body eliminate waste.
Enzymes are substances that speed up the chemical reactions of digestion.
Vitamins and minerals are needed in small amounts to keep the body healthy.
Minerals such as iron and calcium are important for red blood cell function and bone developement.
Organs of the digestive system are adapted to break large food molecules into small ones which can travel in the blood to cells and are used for life processes.
The body needs a balanced diet with carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and water, for its cells’ energy, growth and maintenance.