Lymphatic/Immune System Leah Portuguez Period 1 (Anatomy of the Lymphatic…
Lymphatic/Immune System Leah Portuguez Period 1
Anatomy of the Lymphatic System
Fluid: is a transudative fluid that is transparent and yellow. It is formed when fluid leaves the capillary bed in tissues due to hydrostatic pressure. Roughly 10% of blood volume becomes lymph.
Nodes: kidney shaped structures which act to filter foreign particles from the blood, and play an important role in the immune response to infection. On average, an adult has around 400 to 450 different lymph nodes spread throughout the body – with the majority located within the abdomen.
: arise in the subcutaneous tissue, and tends to accompany venous flow. They eventually drain into deep vessels.
: drain the deeper structures of the body, such as the internal organs. They tend to accompany deep arteries.
Red bone marrow
: Responsible for maturation of immature lymphocytes, much like the thymus.
: Responsible for the development and maturation of T lymphocyte cells.
: Functions mainly as a blood filter, removing old red blood cells. It also plays a role in the immune response.
Innate/Natural Immune Defenses and Adaptive/Acquired Immune Defenses
: Immunity that is naturally present and is not due to prior sensitization to an antigen from, for example, an infection or vaccination. Since it is not stimulated by specific antigens, innate immunity is generally nonspecific. It is in contrast to acquired immunity
Adaptive/Acquired Immune Defenses
: Antigens are any substances that elicit the acquired immune response
Disorders of the Immune System
: Inflammation of the tonsils due to bacterial infection. tonsils become red, swollen, and sore.
Any disease of lymph nodes.
: Any neoplasm of the lymphoid tissue, whether benign or malignant.
Antigens and Antibodies
: a substance that enters the body and starts a process that can cause disease. The body then usually produces antibodies to fight the antigens.
: a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances which the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood
Humoral VS. Cellular Response
Humoral immunity is also called antibody-mediated immunity. With assistance from helper T cells, B cells will differentiate into plasma B cells that can produce antibodies against a specific antigen. The humoral immune system deals with antigens from pathogens that are freely circulating, or outside the infected cells. Antibodies produced by the B cells will bind to antigens, neutralizing them, or causing lysis (dissolution or destruction of cells by a lysin) or phagocytosis.
Cellular immunity occurs inside infected cells and is mediated by T lymphocytes. The pathogen's antigens are expressed on the cell surface or on an antigen-presenting cell. Helper T cells release cytokines that help activated T cells bind to the infected cells’ MHC-antigen complex and differentiate the T cell into a cytotoxic T cell. The infected cell then undergoes lysis.
Major Functions of the
Lymphatic & Immune Systems
: is made up of a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body
: primary job of the lymphatic systems is to transport lymph, a clear, colorless fluid containing white blood cells that help the body get rid of toxins, waste. and wasteful fluids from the body