Chapter 42,44 (Circulation and Gas Exchange (Vertebrates:/Cardio…
Circulation and Gas Exchange
Vertebrates:/Cardio Vascular/Ntwrk of vessels/ ARTERIES,VEINS,CAPILLARIES
Arteries: Carry bld from heart to organs, AWAY from heart to capp.
Veins: Carry blood back into heart after oxygenated/ Towards heart from capps.
Capillaries: network of capps, capp-beds./Thin walls/diffusion/converge into venules---veins--to heart/ pathways have exceptions involving capp beds 922.
Single Circulation:blood runs a single circuit/hearts/2 chambers/1 atrium/1 ventricle// blood atrium/ventricle pmp blood---capp bed in gills--net diffusion O2,Co2/in/out of blood---blood leaves gills--capp--vessels--oxy rich bld--capp bed,rest of body---gas exchanging blood enters veins---returns to heart--blood prs. drops/restricts blood flow
Blood pressure/High may put stress on heart: Sys/Dia, Norm;120/80
Gastrovascular cavity/Cells in contact w/ enviorn/ fluid bathes/inside/outside tissue
Double Circulation: 2 Circuits combine into a single organ/heart/Simplifies pump cycle/
oxy poor--capp beds of gas exchange tissues----diffusion O2 into blood/CO2 out---Pulmonary Circuit (exchange in lungs and skin)//Left side--oxy rich from gas exc. tiss.--to capp beds--Organs,Tissues// oxy poor blood returns to heart through the Pulmonary veins Amphibians/Mammals/Reptiles. Humans have septum in heart to avoid blood type mixtures.
Circulatory System: They link exchange surfaces with cells throughout the body
Blood consists of Plasma (wtr/salt/proteins)/Red/white blood cells, Platelets / Red Delivers oxy. from lungs to tissues/organs
Simple Body/all cells in contact with environment/sponges/FWrms.
Circulatory System/move flds btwn ech cell/body,bdy tissue, envior.
Closed Circulatory/ Blood/Hearts Pump---large valve---smaller--tissue,organ--exchange blood,fluids,cells/squids/Vertebrates/Blood pressure/02 exchanges
Open Circulatory System/Hemolymph is I.F that bathes cells/ Contraction of heart---Vessles---Sinuses----Exchange--Relax---Hemph. back through pores---valves---movement---circulate hemolmph.
3 PARTS/Fluid/Interconnecting Vessels/ Heart(s)
Metabolic energy to elevate circ./hydro pressure/fluid/vessels/back to heart/connects body's cells to organs
/BIIIIIcuspid/Aortic Semilunar/Thicker/Lots of pressure/pushing blood towards whole body
Lymph Circulation:Lymph is the fluid in the lymphatic system. Part of a complex network of vessels,/essentially a drainage system in the body which transports excess fluid/ metabolic waste products from interstitial spaces into the blood circulatory system.
Lungs/Neg pressure,humans,suck air in,/Post. Pressure, Amphibians, force air down.
Skin: Surfaces thin enough for gas exchanges, Helps keep moisture
Gills: Counter current Change/Fish/ Two fluids exchange/ opp. directions/ Blood has less and less O2 then involved water
Osmoregulation and excretion
Excretion: Rids body of nitrogenous metabolic/met. waste
Urea: Land animals produce/ safer than transp. of amm.//amm. combined with carbon diox. in the liver/ Involves energy/ Tadpoles are weird.
Uric Acid wastes:Insects/land snails/Reptiles/ Semisolid gross birds/More energy required/ humans and other animals use a small port. of proce.// Gout/Fossil. Bones
Ammonia: Animals that produce amm. need lots of water/Low concentractions/ Aquatic animals/
Osmoreg: required for homestasis/Process by which animals control solute concentrations and balance water gain/loss (excess explodes!)(lack shrivel)
Osmosis: Water enters body. 2 Soult. separated by cell mem. diff. in tot. solute concentration (concentrate measured in osmolarity)
Osmoregulator: To control internal osmolarity./FRESHWATER: Cells cannot tolerate salt cont. of lake/river water./Prob:gains through osmosis//Cope with losing lots of very diluted urine and no drinking water. Salt is uptake in gills, and food
Osomoconfermer: To be isoosmotic with it's surroundings, Match Environment MARINE ANIMALS, They drink lots of sea water, excess salt elimanted kindeys,gills,Rid of "urea"
TWO: absorption:Trans epithelium gets substance/returns them to body fluids
THREE: Secretion: Toxins,excess ions, taken from fluids/added to contents of exct. tubule
ONE: Filtration:collect from blood/water solutes difuse across membrane,Capps, to excret. tubes
FOUR: Excretion: Urine (altered filtrate) leaves system and body
Protonephridia: Flat wormssss//For those lacking coelom/body cavity. FLAME BULB--Tuble cell---cap cell--/ Process: Filtration, Cilia draws water/solt. from IF through flamebulb, releases filtrate into tubule netwrk,processed filtrate moves outward from tubules. Exits body
Metanephridia: Excretory system that collect fluid directly from coelom// A pair found in each segment of annelid/ immersed in coelomic fluid/ Capp Network/ Cilia beat-- fluid drawn into tubule (storage bladder, leads to outside). Eartworms//Both Excretory , Osmoregulation Function
Malpighian Tubules:Insects/Terr. Arthro//extend from Dead end tips immersed in HEMOLYMPH to openings in dig. tract. Filtration is absent/Trans. Epii excrete solutes (nitro. waste) from hemo. to lumen of tubule. Osmosis.
Kidneys: Consist of tubules/ siml. nwtwrk. of capp./ Renal Cortex,Renal Medulla: , Blood by artery, drained by vein.// Within exct. tubules carry,proces filtrate from blood ent. kidneys.
Nephron: Long Tubule---ball of capp (Glomerulus)----cup shaped swelling (bowman's capsule) surrounding Glomerulus)/// Filrate formed from blood fluids forced into glomerulus----lumen of bowan---- THREE MAJOR REGIONS, Prox. tubule (ABSORPTION)---loop Henle-(Makes permeable to water/dilutes/Diffuses)--Distal tubule-(regulates)---Collecting duct (turns to urine/concentrates) gets processed filtrate from multi. nephrons----goes to renal pelvis----Capps from glomerulus converge as exiting---branches form pertubular Capps/Prox&dist. tubules----Downward, Vasa Reca (capps) serve renal medulla, and loop henle.