Birmingham, Birmingham Case Study - Will Simpson (Structure of Birmingham…
Birmingham Case Study - Will Simpson
De-industrialisaton (pg 162-163)
Factories closed down and companies moved jobs abroad e.g. to China where wages were lower and there was a bigger market for their goods. This saved companies money and made more profit
Automation (or mechanisation) - this is where machines do the work of people. This leads to job losses where fewer workers are needed. in Birmingham - new technology was slow to be adopted and factories in other places became more efficient and so in Birmingham factories closed
Many factories are in the old inner city area. They couldn't expand as the city had grown. Therefore, they closed factories and moved them out of the city where there was more space to expand. People lost jobs if they couldn't move with the factory
Motorways were built on the edge of Birmingham - this allowed for very quick transport if goods. Roads in the inner city were narrow and slow. Factories moved to be closer to the motorways. Some people lost their jobs if they couldn't move
Unemployment (downward spiral effect), pollution from old inner city factory sites, especially where metal manufacturing had occurred, workers needed to be retrained as they didn't have the skills for the new jobs in the tertiary (service) sector
The loss of jobs in the secondary (manufacturing) industry.
Changes in parts of the city (pg 160)
1990's onwards. Children left birmingham for the countryside when very young (nicer environment etc), they then return to the city as adults for jobs/university
Counter-urbanization 1970's onwards
Moved to towns such as reddich
decrease in proportion of people living in urban areas and moving back to rural areas
Suburbanization 1930'S/1920'S (Started) - Increasing proportion of people living in the suburbs
Larger housing, less polluted. Good for families
Urbanization -18th/19th century - The increase proportion of people living in urban areas
People move to the city to get jobs in manufacturing (jobs, guns). Problems of agriculture in the country-side forced people into the city
Sustainability (pg 169-169)
England average for recycling was 43.5% in 2013, Birmingham was 30.1%. Possible reasons for difference - high migrant population
Provision of gas buses , using special bus lanes. This means that buses are often faster than cars around the city, and so people use them.
Sustainability in General
Meeting the needs of the present, while at the same time allowing furute generations to meet their needs
Many jobs have been created and this provides tax income for Birmingham to use to create changes.
Encouraging people to use more energy efficient light bulbs in their homes and increase the amount of insulation, reducing energy use.
Inequality (pg 164-165)
Why is there inequality in Birmingham
The inner city is the most deprived because this is the are where De-industrialisation has been most severe
Inner city - lowest life expectancy, worst housing, worst quality schools.
Housing quality is worst in the inner city - this is often damp
Jobs tend to be low paid in the inner city (maybe manufacturing) or part time work.
Least investment e.g. new infrastructure, housing, roads etc, which creates further inequality
Deprivation in Birmingham
Index of multiple deprivation - measures how deprived certain areas of the city are - looks at housing, crime, income, education and health
Structure of Birmingham p158-159
Now many have moved to the rural urban fringe as the businesses needed to expand and the inner city was surrounded by the suburbs
Used to be in the inner city (when this was the edge of the city)
Land use e.g golf course, Airport, Themepark
Land is cheapest here
Not Many jobs - Main services were schools
Houses - Detached/semi-detached. Arranged in cul-de-sacs which was attractive for families
People no longer needed to live in walking distance of work
Developed in the 1950's and 1960's. People wanted to move away from the inner city
Traditional housing is back to back terraces.
These were knocked down and replaced with high rise tower blocks - called comprehensive redevelopment
Many Areas of green space - different than other cities. Unexpected because cost of land is high
Building density is high as land is expensive, building height increases
Land is very expensive, peak land value intersection (PLVI)
Oldest part of the city, many department stores, offices and hotels
Migration (pg 161)
Why people leave Birmingham and go to other parts of the UK
To retire - e.g. Cornwall or Devon, nicer environment, better weather
More variety of jobs in other places e.g London
Why people move to birmingham
Main group is students attending university
Impacts on Birmingham
Ethnic groups often concentrate in different parts of the city e.g spark brook
Reasons for this - servoces develop to support these groups e.g. shops, religious facilities; people are less likely to face discrimination if they are less of a minority group in an area
Impacts - puts a strain on healthcare services (e.g. too many people for local GP's), too many children in school who don't speak English as a 1st language, problems of rubbish collection/language barrier.
People leaving UK
Main reason is climate and most popular destination is Australia
People moving to birmingham
Jobs- higher paid jobs in the UK than many countries in Europe E.G Poland
Fleeing from conflict. e.g war in syria
Birmingham has a high migrant population and so migrants often go to join friends, family in the city
Changes in retailing (pg 166-167)
1970's - mass car ownership. People wanted to drive to shops (couldn't because of narrow roads in CBD. Out of town shopping centres developed, with free car parking and undercover shops. E.g Merry hill in dudley.
1980's Onwards -CBD fights back. Birmingham built the bullring shopping centre, pedestrianised the CBD(make it more attractive to shoppers) and encouraged shops to open late.
until the 1970's the CBD was the most popular place for retail - this is because it was the most accessible part of the city - had the highest footfall (number of people walking on street)Shops did well.
Site of Birmingham pg 158
1830's onwards - canals and then railways allow Birmingham to expand and connect to other parts of the UK
Birmingham developed industries e.g. Jewellery required small amounts of raw materials - important because it didn't have canals until much later
Birmingham is on a dry point site