Cigarette use among male and female students of different ethnicity in…
Cigarette use among male and female students of different ethnicity in South Africa
Step 1: statement of the problem
Application: the interest of this study lies in the use of cigarettes. The problem in this case is the use of cigarettes among students of different ethnicity in South Africa.
Theory: This is the first step in the research process, in this step the area of interest defined. In this step the research itself gains its focus.
Step 3: Relevant review of literature
Theory: According to Kim(2018), a literature review is "essential for research at any level." A review of literature is gives a general idea of the questions that have already been asked by other researchers and endures that researchers do not end up researching similar or same things.
Application: Reddy and associates had previously conducted a study in 1995 and 1996. This research would make use of and build on their previous work. Their previous research can be used as a stepping stone and give them insight on what to achieve. They can use thier previous work as a reference point and either choose to further the same research or move in a new direction. The researchers in this study looked at previous information on adult smoking behavior as well as smoking behavior in adolescents and found that it is difficult ton make assumptions and gain an impression of smoking adolescents.
Step 5: Choice of methodology and method, selecting a sample
Theory: According to Coop(2018), there are three primary methodology types, " quantitative,qualitative and mixed methodology." Tamboni (2018) noted that the count of a number of single samples in a statistical view is sample size. According to Gill et al (2008) "interviews, focus groups are qualitative methods." In this step researchers have to decide which methodology lend itself to their research question.
Application: researchers in this study made use of a two stage sample cluster design. This study had two stages with their own sampling frame. This research utilized students in grade 8,9 and 10. All students in the selected classes were eligible for the survey.
Step 6: Data analysis and interpretation
Theory: Researchers in this step have to determine which method of data analysis is the best for the research .McDonell(2016) elaborated on the types id data analysis, he noted that there must be a slight correlation between "the approach and the results that it yields.'
Application: A waiting factor was applied to each student record to accomodate for the occurence of non-reponse. SUDAAN and Epi info was used to compute prevalence rates and 95 % confidance intervals for estimates.
Step 7: Discussion and report writing
Application: The results from the data collected showed that the research that featured multiple countries was different from that of the research conducted in South Africa. the results showed that almost a quarter of students in grade 8 to 10 smoked cigarettes which is extremely similar to the number of adults in South Africa that smoked cigarettes.
Theory: This is the final step in the research process. in this step researcher gather and discuss their findings. researchers must then compile and formulate the report. Researchers must then decide how to structure their report and determine the audience that read their reports
Step 4: Choice of theoretical approach
Theory: a theoretical approach is the view that the researcher chooses to use in the research. The theoretical approach that is chosen has a substantial impact on the research. it will guide the researchers thinking, beliefs and assumptions. Theoretical approaches has a an influence on the results that the research yields.
Application: This research followed a positivist/post positivist approach. the research utilized a quantitative method of data collection, by way of questionnaire. a questionnaire was formulated and distributed to schools. the method of collection was definitive and removed any case of ambiguity.
Step 2: Development of the research question
Application: The research question or the central issue in this study is,What is the cigarette use of female and male individuals between the ages of 8-10 in South African schools.
Theory: The second step in the research process is an essential step in the research process. According to Trochim et al (2016) the research question is the"central issue being addressed in the study"