Birmingham Case Study - Tom Shaw (Structure of Birmingham - pg 158,159…
Birmingham Case Study - Tom Shaw
Site of Birmingham pg. 158
Birmingham developed industries e.g. jewellery. Required small amounts of raw material - important because it didn't have canals till much later.
Dry Point site
1830s onwards - canals and then railways allowed Birmingham to expand & connect to other areas of UK.
Structure of Birmingham - pg 158,159
Oldest part of the city, many department stores, offices & hotels
Building density is high as land is expensiv, building height increases.
Land is vert expensive- Peal Land Value Intersection (PLVI) most expensive land in the city
Many area of green space - different than other cities. Unexpected as cost of land is high
Traditional housing is 'back to back' terraces
These were knocked down & replaced with high rise tower blocks - called comprehensive redevelopment
Developed in 1950s & 1960. People wanted to move away from the inner city.
Not many jobs - main services were schools.
People no longer needed to live in walking distamces of work.
Houses - Detached/semi-detached. Arranged in 'cul-de-sacs', attractive for families
Land use - e.g. golf couses
Land is cheapest here
Used to be in the inner city (when this was the edge of the city)
Moved to the rural urban fringe as business needed space
Businesses needed to expand
Changing parts of the city - pg160
- 18th/19th century - Increasing proporttion of people living in urban areas
People moved to the city to get jobs in manufacturing e.g. jewellery, guns. Problems in the counryside also forced people into the city
-1920's/1930s (started) - Increasing proportion of people living in the suburbs
- nicer housing, gardens, away from pollution
- 1970's onwards
Moved to towns Such as Reditch
Moved out of Birmingham to escape pollution, crime, noise etc.
Decreasing proportion of people living in urban areas & moving back to rural areas.
- Children left Birmingham for countryside when very young (nicer environment etc), they returned to the city as adults for jobs/university.
Impacts on Birmingham
Ethnic groups often concentrate in different areas of the city e.g. Sparkbrook
Reasons for this - services developed to support these groups e.g. shops, religious facilities; people live close to friends/family already in these areas & people are less likely to face deiscrimination if they are less of a minority group in the area
Impacts - puts a strain on the healthcare services (e.g. too many people for local Gp's) , too many children in schools who don't speak English as their 1st language, problems of rubish collection/language barrier.
People leaving UK
Main reason is climate (most popular destination is Australia)
People moving to Birmingham
Jobs - higher paid jobs in UK than many places in Europe e.g. Poland
Fleeing from conflict e.g. War in Syria
Birmingham has a high migrant population & so migrants often join friends/ family in the city
Why people leave Birmingham & go to other parts of the UK
To retire - e.g. to South West Of UK ( Cornwall/Devon), nicer environment, better weather.
Jobs - maybe greater variety of jobs in other cities e.g. London
Why people move to Birmingham
Main group is students attending university
De - Industrialization pg. 162, 163
- Loss of jobs in the secondary ( manufacturing) industries
Factories closed down & companies moved jobs abroad e.g. To China where wages were lower & there was a bigger market for their goods. This saved companies money & made more profit
Many factories are in the old inner city area. They couldn't expand as the city had grown. Therefore, they closed factories & moved them out of the city where there was more space to expand. People lost jobs if they couldn't move with the factory.
Automation/ mechanisation- - this is where the machines do the work of people. This leads to job losses as fewer workers are needed.
In Birmingham - new technology was slow to be adopted & factories in other other places ecame more efficient & so in Nirmingham factories closed.
Moterways were built on the edge of Birmingham - this allowed for very quick transportation of goods. Roads in the inner city were narrow & slow. Factories moved to be closer to moterways. Some people lossed their jobs if they couldn't move
- unemployment (downward spiral effect), pollution from the old inner city factories (especially where metal manufacturing had occured), workers need to be re-trained as they didn't have the skills for the new jobs in the tertiary (service) sector - 'structural unemployment'
Inequality pg. 164, 165
Why is there inequality in Birmingham
is the most deprived because there is the area where de-industrialization has been most severe.
Inner city - lowest expectancy, lowest incomes, worst housing, worst quality schools.
Least investment e.g. new infrastructure, housing, roads etc which creates further inequality
Jobs tend to be low paid in the inner city ( maybe manufacturing), or part time work.
Housing quality is worst in the inner city - this is often damp
Deprivation in Birmingham
Index of Multipole Deprivation - measures how deprived certain areas of the city are - looks at housing, crime, income, education & health
Changes in Retailing pg. 166, 167
1970s, CBD was most popular place for retail
as it was:
most accessible part of the city, had the highest footfall (number of people walking on the street). shops did
- mass car ownership ment people wanted to drive to the shops (couldn't because of narrow roads in CBD). Out of town shopping centres developed with free car parking and undercover shops E.g. Merry Hill in Dudley. Developed on edge of the city because it's the cheapest land
- CBD fights back. Birmingham built the
shopping centre, pedestrianized the CBD (make more attractive to shoppers) & ancouraging shops to open late.
Sustainability pg. 168, 169
Sustainability in general
- Meeting the need of the present, whilst at the same time allowing future generations to meet their needs
Many jobs have been created and this provides tax income for Birmingham to use to make changes
Encouraging people to use more energy efficient light bulbs in their homes & increasing the amount of insulation - reducing enrgy use
England Av recycling was 43.5% in 2013,
Birmingham Av recycling was 30.1%
Possible reason for difference is high migrant population
Provision of gas buse in Birmingham, using special bus lanes. This means that buses are often faster around the city than cars so people use them.