Birmingham Case Study - Tom Sutherland (De-Industrialisation…
Birmingham Case Study - Tom Sutherland
Changes is Retail
Encouraging shops to stay open later
2nd Phase - 1970s - Roads too narrow for cars and they had to drive to out of city shopping centres in the rural urban fringe (cheap land.) Free car parking and inside shops. Eg Merry Hill in Dudley
1980s - CBD fought back and had its own shopping centres (Bullring.) The city centre was pedestrianised and ensured people were more comfy.
1st Phase - Until the 70s the CBD was the most popular place with the highest footfall in the city. Shops did well
(Cheeky 4th Phase) - 2000s and 2010s Online shopping causing problems for shops in the city centres all across the country
THIS IS ALL TO DO WITH BIRMINGHAM AND THESE STATS WILL NOT BE THE SAME FOR EVERY CITY
De-Centralisation - factories were in the OLD inner city and they couldn't expand so the factories moved out of the city. Jobs were lost if they couldn't move with the factory
"Loss of jobs in the manufacturing industry"
Globalisation - Factories closed and moved to places like China, larger work force and cheaper labour and and a bigger market for their goods
Automation/Mechanisation - robots do the jobs of the people so fewer people are needed and this reduces wages and job loss
Transport Developments - Motorways developed, businesses moved to be closer to the motorways for quick transport of goods. Roads in the inner city were narrow and slow.
Downward spiral effect - structural unemployment, pollution from old inner city factory sites and workers needed to be retrained because they couldn't work in any other sector.
Encouraging energy efficient appliances
Many new jobs have been created
Gas buses instead of diesel
"Meeting the needs of the present whilst at the same time allowing future generations to meet their needs."
More bus lanes and low emission zones.
England average for recycling was 43.5% in 2013 whereas in Birmingham it was 30.1%.
Impacts on Birmingham - Groups of people of the same ethnic background. Also puts stress on schools, jobs and doctors. Can also face discrimination when in things like job interviews
People move to retire and for education
Main group of people is students searching for better or higher education
People moved to Birmingham and moved close to friends and religious people of the same belief.
International Migration - move for climate, healthcare and flee conflict. Australia and UK are popular
More services for different groups. (religious buildings and ethnic shops)
Housing is often damp, jobs tend to be low paid (maybe manufacturing or part time work.) Also area of least investment
Deprivation and why it's in Birmingham
Index of Multiple Deprivation - measures how deprived certain areas are, looking at housing, income, jobs, health and education.
Inner city has the lowest life expectancy due to - pollution, poor quality housing and poor quality education and jobs are usually manual labour and finally poor diet and healthcare.
developed in the 50s and 60s
people didnt need to live within walking distance.
detached and semi detached, arranged in cul-de-sacs
schools were the main services
traditional back to back terraced housing
knocked down and replaced with tower blocks
Rural Urban Fringe
out of town shopping centres
wide spaces for airports
land is the cheapes
oldest part of the city, many department stores, offices and hotels.
peak land value intersection (most expensive land in the city)
lots of green spaces in birminghams cbd
building height is the highest in the city
moved to the rural urban fringe as businesses needed space
businesses needed to expand
used to be in the inner city when this was the edge of the city
Changes In Parts of the City
Increase of people moving to the suburbs
Moved away from the lack of jobs
seeked better pay
Site of Birmingham
1830s onwards - canals then railways were created and allowed it to expand and connect with other parts of the UK
Dry Point Site
Birmingham developed industries e.g jewellery