Birmingham Case Study- Jake Bartholomew (Structure of Birmingham PG158-159…
Birmingham Case Study- Jake Bartholomew
Site of Birmingham PG158
Birmingham is on a dry point Site where as Jane is a
Birmingham developed industries e.g. Jewellery because it only required a small amount of raw materials which was important as it didn't have canals to transport materials until much later.
1830's- Canals and railways allowed Birmingham to expand and connect to other parts of the UK
Migration Pg. 161
Why do people leave the UK
The main reason is climate and the most popular destination is Australia
Why do people move to the UK
Higher paid jobs in UK than many other countries e,g, Poland
Birmingham has a high migrant population and so migrants often go to join friends/family in the city
Fleeing from conflict e.g. Syria
Impacts on Birmigham
Different ethnic groups often concentrate in different parts of the city e.g. Sparkbrook
Services develop to support these groups e.g. shops/religious facilities
People want to live close to friends and family
3.Areas were an ethnic group is the majority will have less discrimination as the because they are less of a minority
Outs a strain on healthcare series e.g. too many people for local GP's
Too many different 1st languages in schools/ not everyone speaks english
Problems with migrants understanding rubbish collections
Why do people leave Birmingham
To retire e.g. to south west such as Cornwall/ Devon for better weather and environment
Jobs- maybe more variety of jobs in other cities e.g. London
Why do people move to Birmingham
Main group is students attending university
Changes in Retailing Pg.m166-7
Until the 1970's the CBD was the most popular area for retail because it was the most accessible part of the city and had the highest footfall and so the shops did well
1979's mass car ownership started and people wanted to drive to the shops but couldn't because of the narrow roads and limited parking. Out of town shopping centres developed with free parking and undercover shops. E.g. Merry hill in Dudley developed in the rural-urban fringe because of cheap land.
1980's onwards the CBD fights back and Birmingham built the bull ring shopping centre,pedestrianised the CBD to make it more attractive to shoppers and encouraged shops to open late.
Structure of Birmingham PG158-159
CBD- Oldest part of city with many department stores, offices and hotels. The land is very expensive with the Peak Land Value Intersection (PLVI) in the CBD. Building density is high because of the expensive land and so there are lots of tall buildings. Although there are lot's of green spaces which is different to most cities.
Inner City- Traditional back to back terrace housing was knocked down and replaced with high rise tower blocks. This is called comprehensive redevelopment.
Suburbs- These developed in Birmingham in the 1950s-60s as people wanted to move away from the inner city and because people no longer needed to live in walking distance to work (because of mass car ownerships and public transport improvements) There were nice semi-detached houses arranged in Cul-de-sacs which were attractive for families.
Rural-Urban Fringe- Land is cheapest here because it is most available and so the land uses include golf course, airports and large scale shopping centres.
Industrial Zones-This used to be in the inner city but now many have moved to the rural-urban fringe as the businesses needed more space to expand which was not available in the inner city because of the surrounding suburbs.
De-Industrialization Pg. 162-3
De-centralization- Many factories are in the old inner city area and so they couldn't expand because the city had grown. Therefore, they closed down and moved out of the city where there was more space to expand. People lost their jobs if they couldn't move with the factory.
Globalization- Factories closed down and moved abroad e.g. China where wages were lower and there was a bigger market for their goods. This saved companies money and so they made more profit.
Technological advance- because of automation/mechanisation(where machines do the work of people) there were job losses as fewer works are needs but also in Birmingham factories were slow to adopt new technologies and so they couldn't keep up with the other more efficient factories and they closed.
Transport Developments- motorways were built on the edge of Birmingham which allowed goods to be transported quickly and efficiently. Roads in the inner city were narrow and slow and so factories moved to be closer to motorways. People lost their jobs if they couldn't move with the factories
Unemployment lead to downward spiral effect.
2.Pollution from old factory sites in the inner city especially metal factories
Workers needed to be re-trained as they didn't have skills for new jobs in the tertiary sector which is called structural unemployment.
Definition- Loss of jobs in the secondary industry(manufacturing)
Changes in parts of the city Pg160
Urbanisation- 18th/19th century
The increase in the proportion/percentage of people living in urban areas.
People moved to the city for jobs in manufacturing e.g. jewellery and guns and because of the problems in agriculture.
Suburbanisation- started in 1920s/30s
The increase in proportion of people living in the suburbs.
They did this for a better and larger housing, for more green spaces/gardens and less pollution.
Counter-Urbanisation- 1970s onwards
The decrease of the proportion of people living in urban areas and moving back to rural areas.
They moved out of Birmingham to Redditch to escape noise, pollution, crime etc
Re-urbanisation- 1990s onwards
The movement of people moving back into the city from the country after originally living in the city
children left the city when they are young for better living conditions and nicer environment. They then return to the city when they are older for jobs/university.
Sustainability pg 168-9
Generally- meeting the needs of the presents whilst allowing future generation to meet their need
Many jobs have been created to provide tax income for these changes
Encouraging people to sue more energy efficient light bulbs and increase the amount of insulation to reduce energy use in their homes
The England average for recycling was 43.5% in 2013 where as Birmingham was only 30.1% possibly because of the high migrant concectration
Provision of gas buses using special bus lanes meaning they are often faster around the city than cars and so people use them more than cars reducing pollution.
Inequality pg 163-5
why is there inequality in Birmingham
The inner city is the most deprived because this is where de-industrialization has been most severe. The inner city has the lowest incomes, worst housing, lowest life expectancy, worst quality schools.
Housing quality is worse in the inner city- often damp
Jobs tend to be low paid in the inner city and often in manufacturing or part time
Least investment- e.g. no new infastructure, housing, roads which creates further inequality
Deprivation in Birmingham
Index of multiple deprivation- measures how deprived certain areas of the city are by looking at housing, income, education, health and crime