Geography Birmingham - Ethan Causer (de-industrialisation pg. 162 and 163…
Geography Birmingham - Ethan Causer
inequality- pg. 164 & 165
Why is there inequality in Birmingham
Least investment e.g. new infrastructure, housing, roads, etc, which creates further inequality
Jobs tend to be low paid in the inner city (maybe manufacturing)
Housing quality often is worst in the inner city- this is often damp
Inner city is most deprived because this is the area where de- industrialisation has been most severe
Inner city- lowest life expectancy, lowest incomes, worst housing, worst quality schools.
Deprivation in Birmingham
Index of Multiple Deprivation- measures how deprived certain areas of the city are - looks at housing,crime,income, education and health
de-industrialisation pg. 162 and 163
Unemployment (downward spiral effect), pollution from old inner city factory sites especially where metal manufacturing had occured, workers needed to be re- trained as they didnt have the skills for the new jobs in the tertiary (service ) sector - 'structural unemployment '
Definition- Loss of jobs in the secondary (manufacturing ) industry.
Motorways were built on the edge of Birmingham this allowed for very uick transport of goods. Roads in the inner city were narrow and slow. Factories moved to be closer to the motorways. Some people lost their jobs if they couldn't move.
Many factories are in the old inner city area. They couldn't expand as the city had grown. Therefore, they closed factories and moved them out of the city where there was more space to expand. People lost jobs if they couldn't move with the factory.
Automation/ mechanisation- this is where machines do the work of people. This lead to job losses are fewer workers are needed. In Birmingham - new technology was slow to be adopted and factories in other places became more efficient and so in Birmingham factories closed.
Globalisation- Fact closed down and companies moved jobs abroad e.g. to China where wages were lower and there was a bigger market for their goods. This saved companies money and made more profit
Changes in parts of the city. page 160
Urbanisation (18th and 19th centuries)
people moved to birmingham to get jobs in manfauctring in jewallry or guns, problems of agriculture also forced people to the city
Definition: increase in percentage of people living in urban areas.
Suburbanisation (1920's and 1930s)
wanted larger housing, parks, gardens, fashionable, less pollution, less busy
Definition: increasing number people living in the suburbs
Counter- urbanisation (1970's onwards)
moved out of biringham to escape the pollution- movement of reddicth
Definition: decrease of people living in urban areas and moving back to rural areas.
Re- urbanisation (after 1990)
1990's onwards. chidren left Birmingham for countryside when very young (nicer environment etc), they then return to the city as adults for jobs/ university
Definition: the movement of people back into an area that has. been previously abandoned.
changes in retailing pg. 166 & 167
until the 1970's CBD was most popular place for retail - this is because it was the most accessible part of the city, had the highest footfall (number of people walking on street). shops did well.
1980's onwards- CBD fights back. Birmingham built the Bullring shopping centre, pedestrianised the CBD (Make it more attractive for shoppers) and encouraged shops to open late.
1970's mass car ownership- people wanted to drive to shops (couldn't because of narrow roads in CBD ). out of town shopping centres developed with free car parking and undercover shops. e.g. Merry Hill in Dudley. Developed on edge of city because of cheapest land.
impacts on Birmingham
Impacts- puts strain on healthcare services (e.g. too many people for local Gps), too many children in school who don't speak English as there 1st language, problems of rubbish collection/ language barrier.
Reasons for this - services develop to support these groups e.g. shops, religious facilities; people live close to friends/ family already in these areas and people are less likely to face discrimination if they are less of a minority group in an area.
Ethnic group often concentrate in different parts of the city e.g. Sparkbrook.
Why people leave Birmingham and go to other parts of the UK
Jobs- maybe more variety of jobs in other cities e.g. London
to retire- e.g. South West (Cornwall/ Devon) nicer environment, better weather
Why people move to Birmingham
Main group are young people/ student attending university
Birmingham as a high migrant population and so migrants often go to join friends/ family in the city.
Fleeing from conflict e.g syria
People moving to Birmingham - Higher paid jobs in the UK than many other countries in Europe.
people leaving - UK people leaving UK main reason is climate and most popular destination is Australia
structure of Birmingham. page 158 &159
Rural- Urban Fringe
Land is cheapest here
land use e.g. airports, out of town shopping centres, golf courses
development in birmingham in the 1950 & 60's people wnated to move away from the inner city.
people no longer needed to live in walking ditance to work
housing detached and semi detached mainly and cul-de-sacs
not many jobs main services were jobs
Traditional housing is known as back to back terrarce these were knocked down and replaced with high rise tower blocks, called comprehensive redevelopment.
oldest part of city, with ,many department stores, many offices and hotels
land is very expensive, find the peak land value intersection is the ,most expensive land of the city.
many areas of green space - often more then other cities expected because cost of land is high.
these use to be in the inner city when this was the edge of the city
now many have moved to the rural urban fringe as the buisnesses needed space to expand and the inner city was surrounded by the suburbs.
site of Birmingham. page 158
Birmingham is developed industries for example gun industry. not required a lot raw materials. it didn't have cannels or railways until much later
Dry point site.
sustainablity pg. 168 & 169
Sustainability in general
Encouraging people to use more energy efficient light bulbs in their homes and increase amount of insulation - reducing energy use.
Many jobs have been created and this provides tax income for Birmingham to use to create changes.
meeting the needs of the present, whilst at the same time allowing future generations to meet their needs
provision of gas buses in Birmingham, using special bus lanes. This means that buses are often faster than cars around the city and so people use them.
England average for recycling was 43.5% in 2013, Birmingham was 30.1%. Possible reason for difference - high migrant population