Birmingham Case Study - Mr Howell (Structure of Birmingham - pg. 158, 159,…
Birmingham Case Study - Mr Howell
Sustainability pg. 168, 169.
Sustainability in general
Many jobs have been created and this provides tax income for Birmingham to use to create changes.
Encouraging people to use more energy efficient light bulbs in their homes and increase amount of insulation - reducing energy use.
Meeting the needs of the present, whilst at the same time allowing future generations to meet their needs.
Provision of gas buses in Birmingham, using special bus lanes. This means that buses are often faster than cars around the city and so people use them.
England average for recycling was 43.5% in 2013, Birmingham was 30.1%. Possible reason for difference - high migrant population.
Changes in retailing, pg. 166, 167
1980s onwards - CBD fights back. Birmingham built the bull ring shopping centre, pedestrianised the CBD (make it more attractive for shoppers) and encouraged shops to open late.
1970s - mass car ownership. People wanted to drive to shops (couldn't because of narrow roads in CBD). Out of town shopping centres developed with free car parking and undercover shops. E.g. Merry Hill in Dudley. Developed on edge of city because of cheapest land.
Until 1970s, CBD was most popular place for retail - this is because it was the most accessible part of the city, had the highest footfall (number of people walking on street). Shops did well.
Inequality pg. 164, 165
Why is there inequality in Birmingham
Least investment e.g. new infrastructure, housing, roads etc, which creates further inequality
Jobs tend to be low paid in the inner city (maybe manufacturing), or part time work.
Housing quality is worst in the inner city - this is often damp.
Inner city is most deprived because this is the area where de-industrialisation has been most severe.
Inner city - lowest life expectancy, lowest incomes, worst housing, worst quality schools.
Deprivation in Birmingham
Index of Multiple Deprivation - measures how deprived certain areas of the city are - looks at housing, crime, income, education and health.
De-Industrialisation pg. 162 and 163
Definition - Loss of jobs in the secondary (manufacturing) industry.
Impacts - unemployment (downward spiral effect), pollution from old inner city factory sites especially where metal manufacturing had occurred, workers needed to be re-trained as they didn't have the skills for the new jobs in the tertiary (service) sector - 'structural unemployment'.
Motorways were built on the edge of Birmingham - this allowed for very quick transport of goods. Roads in the inner city were narrow and slow. Factories moved to be closer to the motorways. Some people lost their jobs if they couldn't move.
Automation/mechanisation - this is where machines do the work of people. This leads to job losses as fewer workers are needed. In Birmingham - new technology was slow to be adopted and factories in other places became more efficient and so in Birmingham factories closed.
Many factories are in the old inner city area. They couldn't expand as the city had grown. Therefore, they closed factories and moved them out of the city where there was more space to expand. People lost jobs if they couldn't move with the factory.
Factories closed down and companies moved jobs abroad e.g. to China where wages were lower and there was a bigger market for their goods. This saved companies money and made more profit.
Migration pg. 161
Impacts on Birmingham
Ethnic groups often concentrate in different parts of the city e.g. Sparkbrook.
Impacts - puts a strain on healthcare services (e.g. too many people for local GPs), too many children in school who don't speak English as a 1st language, problems of rubbish collection/language barrier
Reasons for this - services develop to support these groups e.g. shops, religious facilities; people live close to friends/family already in these areas and people are less likely to face discrimination if they are less of a minority group in an area.
People moving to Birmingham
Birmingham has a high migrant population and so migrants often go to join friends/family in the city
Fleeing from conflict e.g. war in Syria
Jobs - higher paid jobs in the UK than many countries in Europe e.g Poland
People leaving UK
Main reason is climate and most popular destination is Australia
Why people move to Birmingham
Main group is students attending uniersity
Why people leave Birmingham and go to other parts of the UK
Jobs - maybe more variety of jobs in other cities e.g. London
To retire - e.g. to South West of UK (Cornwall/Devon), nicer environment, better weather.
Changes in parts of the city - pg. 160
1990s onwards. Children left Birmingham for countryside when very young (nicer environment etc), they then return to the city as adults for jobs/university
Urbanisation -18th/19th century - Increasing proportion (or you could use the word percentage) of people living in urban areas.
People moved to the city to get jobs in manufacturing e.g. jewellery, guns. Problems of agriculture in countryside also forced people into the city
Suburbanisation - 1920s/1930s (started) - Increasing proportion (or percentage) of people living in the suburbs.
Reasons - nicer housing, gardens, away from pollution
Counter - Urbanisation - 1970s onwards
Decreasing proportion of people living in urban areas and moving back to rural areas.
Moved to towns such as Redditch.
Why? Moved out of Birmingham to escape pollution,crime, noise etc.
Structure of Birmingham - pg. 158, 159
Land is cheapest here
Land use e.g. golf course
Developed in the 1950s and 1960s. People wanted to move away from the inner city
People no longer needed to live in walking distance of walk
Houses - Detached/semi-detached. Arranged in cul-de-sacs which was attractive for families
Not many jobs - main services were schools.
Traditional housing is 'back to back' terraces
These were knocked down and replaced with high rise tower blocks - called comprehensive redevelopment.
Oldest part of city, many department stores, offices and hotels
Land is very expensive - Peak land value intersection (PLVI) - most expensive land in the city
Building density is high as land is expensive. Building height increases.
Many areas of green space - different than other cities. Unexpected because cost of land is high.
Used to be in the inner city (when this was the edge of the city)
Now many have moved to the rural urban fringe as the businesses needed space to expand and the inner city was surrounded by the suburbs.
Site of Birmingham - page 158
1830s onwards - canals and then railways allow Birmingham to expand and connect to other parts of the UK.
Birmingham developed industries e.g. jewellery. Required small amounts of raw materials - important because it didn't have canals until mich later
Dry Point site