THE THRID CRUSADE- HOW SUCCESSFUL WAS IT? (MILITARY LEADERSHIP/ LAND TAKEN…
THE THRID CRUSADE- HOW SUCCESSFUL WAS IT?
the desire to take Jerusalem to fulfil vows and gain penance prevented the army supporting Richard in his more sensible aim of taking Egypt.- their bickering allowed Saladin to take down the walls of Ascalon before crusaders were able to take it. the nobles in the army failed to support Richard's sensible strategy of disrupting Saladin's trade with Egypt and missed an opportunity.
June 1191 - Richard's fleet is hit by a storm- the ship with his sister and fiancé is blown to Cyprus- Isaac II makes an attempt to capture the princess- so Richard takes Cyprus and Isaac is imprisoned on land
Feb- March 1190- Frederick reaches an agreement with Isaac and so kept distance from Constantinople
NOv 1189- Frederick Barbarossa's army in open warfare with the Greeks
June 1189- Frederick Barbarossa's army reached the Byzantium, but was refused safe passage through Constantinople as Emperor Isaac II had pact with Saladin
Saladin might not be that jihadi- 3rd july 1192- prepared to leave Jerusalem when heard that Franks were approaching
Summer 1192- disunity amongst Saladin's relatives - al Afdal (Saladin's son) was unhappy that Saladin gave al- Mansur Mohammad land whilst Al- Adil (Saladins uncle) gained northen territory- delayed manpower to help Saladin.
2nd July 1192- some in Saladin's army opposed to a siege sue to fear of a repetition of the siege of Acre.
2nd July 1192- Kurds vs Turks in army= brewing tensions
SALADIN' S MISTAKES 'OVERCAUTIOUS'
Asbridge concludes that by spring 1192, Saladin's strategy becomes more defensive, to just survive the third crusade, instead of trying to defeat it.
At Arsnuf - outnumbered Richard's army, yet was defeated.
At Acre- failed to defeat Guy's troops and then set up a camp 6 miles away. He then spilt forces, sending son in law Qutb- ad Din to meet Fred's army
Releasing Guy from prison in Summer 1189- as Guy then besieged Acre.
THE TRADITIONALIST VIEW THAT SALADIN WAS 'INVINCIBLE'
SALADIN KEEPS JERUSALEM- WHICH IS FURTHER CONFIRMED AT THE TREATY OF JAFFA IN SEPT 1192- WHICH WAS THE FRANKS ULTIMATE GOAL OF THE 3RD CRUSADE
HIS STRATEGY= Saladin's retreat to Jerusalem, destroying Asclaon's fortifications and destroying Fulks ring of castles meant that Richard had to spend time rebuilding on route to Jerusalem but was constantly attacked. nearly left Jerusalem on franks 2nd march, but then took the initiative and took Jaffa.
Saladin's troops outnumbered Richards- e.g at the Battle of Arsnuf Sept 1191- Saladin had 30, 000 troops whilst Richard had 15, 000- BUT Richard defeated Saladin here due to his leadership skills- keeping his army mounted and in a tight formation- meant could resist Saladin's attacks.
Saladin was permanently stationed in the middle east- so meant empire surrounded Jerusalem, whereas most of Richard's forces would return home, leaving their gains undefended.
Egypt's gold paid Saladin's troops- so Saladin could call on troops from a hue empire- BUT resources were overstretched, running out by summer 1192 and Richard had taken Ascalon, which was where Saladin imported his gold.
CONRAD VS GUY
DISPUTE OVER KINGSHIP OF JERUSALEM- 1189- Conrad shuts Guy out of Tyre. Richard supports Guy along with templars and pisan fleet. whilst Phillip supports Conrad, with help from hospitallers and Genoese. July 1191- decided that Guy would be king, but share revenues and conrad keep tyre whilst guys bro (Geoffrey) get Jaffa and ascalon once recaptured. Conrad not happy- has negotiations with saladin in Oct 1191 and refuses to work with Richard
RICHARD AND PHILLIP
June 1191 at siege of acre Richard and Phillip competing over negotiations with Saladin caused factionalism between them both
Richard also has more money than Phillip due to his conquest of Cyprus in June 1191, and then after the siege of acre, Phillip demands 1/2 of booty and 1/2 of booty from Cyprus, BUT Richard refuses
Angevin Empire- Henry II and his son Richard the Lionheart. Henry's empire= England and parts in fracnce like Normandy, En Jou, Aquitaine- which makes england and france= rivals. - had impact on 3rd crusade because they always had that underlying tension of who the most powerful king was.
Richard successfully raised the saladin tithe, which was put in place in Jan 1188- was a 10% on all moveable goods, but Phillip was not a s good- causes factionalism later- Richard= poorer than Phillip- has to pay troops less- his nobles begin to desert from him and join Richards army.
delayed departure- due to their fear of losing land and their disputes between themselves and with Henry II (Richards father). They didnt arrive until summer 1191 - which was at the end of siege of acre where they rescued it- but if they had come sooner then 10 000s of lives could have been saved- so did cause a loss of manpower
MILITARY LEADERSHIP/ LAND TAKEN
ASBRIDGE SAYS THAT RICHARD DID SAVE OUTREMER BUT WAS ALWAYS TORN BETWEEN NEED TO DEFEND WESTERN REALM AND DESIRE TO IBERATE JERUSALEM. ALSO ASBRIDGE SAYS THAT RICHARD FAILED TO UNDERSTAND RELIGIOUS ZEAL ASPECT OF CRUSADER WARFARE- HENCE UNABLE TO LEAD VICTORY IN EGYPT
power vacuum in army during second march on Jerusalem- Henry of Burgundy took control as Richard sulked in tent- 29th may- 4th June 1192- gave up - perhaps if gone with Richard's suggestion of taking Egypt- could have got the source of Saladin's wealth- but instead marched on Jerusalem- bickering and a waste of time. if they took Jerusalem, it would not have been held when crusade left.
In June 1192- Richard decided to retreat from Jerusalem again- said he would prefer to do an Egyptian campaign instead- said taking jersualem would overstretch supplies etc and that the Muslim defences were too strong. But Richard may have retreated to save his own reputation in fear of losing at jersualem and all along he proffered the idea of an Egyptian campaign. Again- why wasn't this decided earlier- lowered morale again. Richard resigned crusader leadership on 17th June when Hugh of Burgundy said it was Jerusalem or nothing.
Jan 11912- the first march to Jerusalem- Richard = overcautious. took 2 months to advance just 30 miles towards Jerusalem (to avoid overstretching supply lines and to hold a tight formation). the franks abandoned siege- feared Muslims would cut supply lines .- reduced morale and wasted time- why wasn't this decided at Jaffa earlier?
THE BATTLE OF JAFFA July 1192- Saladin attacks the port of Jaffa- but Richard arrived by ship to relieve the Frankish garrison and established a camp outside jaffa and even though he was heavily outnumbered he still saw off the muslims and caused Saladin to retreat.
June 1192- Richard conducted a surprise attack on an Egyptian caravan that was carrying supplies for Saladin- took all booty, medicines etc. BUT Franks ended up retreating from Jerusalem anyway.,
SIEGE OF ACRE= July 1191- richard and phillips armies had battered acre’s walls using catapults and resisted Saladin’s attempts to prevent them. - richard used sappers- causing a tower to fall- led to the destruction of surrounding walls-muslims surrendered and Phillip and Richard would hold the garrison hostage and until payment of 200, 000 gold dinars, return of the relic of the true cross and release of some frankish prisoners and richard and phillip agreed to divide equally their conquests in holy land.
BATTLE OF ARSNUF SEPT 1191- Sept 1191- The Battle of Arsnuf . crusaders were 25 miles from jaffa- Saladin ordered force of 30, 000 men to attack crusaders and crusaders were shocked. Richard approached by Hospitaller to retaliate to muslims- but Richard refused and kept order and formation All of a sudden, a crusader charge had begun, 2 knights had broken ranks leading more and more to do the same. Muslims launched counter attack but franks managed to repulse them causing Saladin’s army to retreat
LACK OF MANPOWER
August 1191, Phillip left, taking most of the French forces with him- means loss of manpower
June 1190- Frederick drowns crossing the River Salph- on route the rest of the army were hit by disease- causes a loss of manpower
took Jaffa and Ascalon
JUNE 1191- Cyprus surrenders to Richard. He wages a 50% tax on them- after he leaves he sells the island to the Templars.