:<3:Introduction to Attachment :<3: (Attachment Figures (Parent…
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Fathers as Primary Carers
The Role of the Father
carried out a
observing both parents behaviour, also looking at the quality of attachment to their teens
We used to think in terms of
(approx. 7 months)
Within a few weeks/months, they formed
Schaffer and Emerson
found most babies became attached to their mothers first
75% of the infants studied, an attachment was formed by the father within 18 months
The infants protested when their father walked away (A sign of attachment)
It was found that high levels of synchrony were associated with a better quality of mother infant attachment.
observed 30 mothers and infants and assessed the degree of synchrony and the quality of mother infant attachment.
The child's response was filmed and identified by independent observers.
An adult displayed one of three facial expressions or one of three gestures to the infant.
Melzoff and Moor
observed the beginnings of Is in infants as young as two weeks old.
Two people are in synchrony when they carry out the same action simultaneously.
IS takes place when mother and infant interact in such a way that their actions and emotions mirror each other.
International synchrony (
) - defined as the temporal co-ordination of micro-level social behaviour.
an interaction is reciprocal when each person responds to the other and elicits a response from them
from around 3 months, interaction is more frequent and involves attention to verbal signs and facial expressions
2/3 of the time, mothers pick upon and respond to the signals
from Birth, mothers and infants spend a lot of time in intense and pleasurable interaction
babies have a periodic alert phase and signal they are ready for attachment
Baby does take an active role
Both mother and child can initiate interactions and appear to do so in turns.
Brazleton - analogy of a dance - each partner responds to each other's moves
Caregiver-infant interactions evaluations
Observations don't tell us the the purpose of synchrony and reciprocity
Controlled observation captures fine detail
It is hard to know what is happening when observing infants
Attachment figures evaluation
Why don't fathers generally become primary attachments
Inconsistent findings on fathers
Some psychologist are interested in understanding fathers as secondary attachment figures whilst other are concerned with a primary attachment approach.
If fathers have a distinct role why aren't children without fathers different