ethnicity (theorists (Ben Rampton 2003
ethnicity is constructed based…
Ben Rampton 2003
- ethnicity is constructed based on our needs and surroundings.
- emphasise linguistic legacy by either playing features up or down.
- can be used to take on other ethnicities.
- can draw attention to a certain ethnicity.
- Found 2 main language types/ variations stemming from immigration in London.
-Multicultural London English
- Studied vowel differences in 3 ethnic groups in Birmingham:
-British White (65.6%)
and found that White British used [ʌʊ] and Black British avoided [o:] which was mainly used by Jamaicans and Caribbeans.
Ben Rampton 2010
- Creole was widely seen as cool, tough. It was associated with assertiveness, verbal resourcefulness, competence in heterosexual relationships and opposition to authority.
- Believed that African American English has its own set of rules that should be respected and that those using the language were not verbally deprived.
Mark Sebba 1980s
- Researched 'London Jamaican'. Pointed out that code-switching is common (where one language is used for one portion of a conversation)
- One recorded conversation suggested a speaker switched to Creole when in teasing mode and in order to reduce a face threatening act.
- The belief that one's ethnicity is created based on experiences and situations. (links with Rampton 2003)
- The idea that ethnicity cannot be changed or created by yourself, and is a key aspect of your identity.
- A variation of language that developed from Caribbean pidgin (a trade language) into a stable language over time.
- A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
Multicultural London English (MLE)
- A language variation combining elements of different languages, specifically Afro-Caribbean English.
- The history of someone's identity based on culture.
- Switching between languages.
- An aspect of identity that refers to the country of a persons birth or citizenship.
- Respect or regard from mainstream society - given to Standard English/RP.
- Status gained from peer group recognition, rather than mainstream society - given to non-standard language varieties