Human growth and development (middle adulthood (mental (ability…
Human growth and development
Spans an individuals life time.
begins at birth and ends at death
measurable physical changes
infancy- birth- 1 year
early childhood- 1-6 years
late childhood- 6-12 years
adolescence- 12-20 years
early adulthood- 20-40 years
middle childhood- 40-65 years
late adulthood- 65 years plus
body growth, height, weight changes, muscle, nerve development
process of becoming fully grown
changes in intelectual, mental, and emotional, social functional skills.
more difficult to measure, but will proceed from simple tasks to more difficult
intellectual, learning how to solve problems, make judgement, deal
Feelings, love, hate, joy, fear, excitement, other similar feelings.
Interactions, and relationships with other people.
psychoanalyst, identified 8 stages of psycho social development
basic conflicts or needs that must be resolved at each stage.
if an individual is not able to resolve a conflict at an appropriate stage, then the individual will struggle with the same conflict later in life.
Infancy- birth-1 year old
most rapid change occurs during the first year of life.
Lift head, roll, support on arms, grasp/ reach items.
turn body around, hold head while sitting
crawl, pull to sit/ stand, good hand/mouth coordination
walk without assistance, use thumb and fingers, throw objects
newborn- 6-8 lbs, end of first year- weight triples
moro- startle reflex
rootng- slight touch of cheek and head will turn
birth- cant speak
2-4 months- cooing when spoken to, laugh out loud.
6 months- understand some words
12 months- understand many words and use single words
newborns- social excitement
4-6 months- distress, delight, anger, disgust,fear
12 months- elation and affection for adults
4 months- recognise caregivers, smile, stare
6 months- possessiveness, imitate, shy, withdrawl
12 months- socialize freely, facial expressions, vocal sounds
1-6 years old
growth not as dramatic
average weighs 45 lbs
average height of 46 inches
adult like appearence learns to write, draw, use utinsils
bladder/bowel control around 2-4 years
vocab of 1500-2500 words
short attention span
recognize letters and words
makes logical decisions based on past, present, and future.
develop self awareness
gain more control over emotions
understand concept of right and wrong
self centered- social
spearaton anxiety from parents
take interests in others
average weight gain of 4-7 lbs per year
avaerage height increase of 2-3 inches per year
speech is more complex
reading and writing is developed
understand abstract concepts
10-12 sexual maturation and changes in body
7 years- be by them selves
8 years- group oriented
accept opinion of others
12-18 years old
puberty- development of secondary sexual characteristics
learn to make decisions
worry about relationships with others
spend less time with family
approval of others
needs of adolescence
anorexia nervosa- drastically reduces food, or refuses food.
bulimia- fasts, refusal of food.
bulimarexia- induces vomiting or uses laxitives to rid of food that has been eaten
Chemical abuse- use of sustances such as alcohol or drugs and the development of a physical or mental dependence
suicide- one leading cause of death in adolescents.
depression, grieving, failure, influence, lack of self esteem
most productive lifestage
prime child baring time
cope with worries
learn to accept criticism
moving away from peer group
hang around people with similar ambitions
become involved with mate
40-65 years old
hair thins and turns grey
muscle tone decreases
understanding of life
confident decision making
depend on family
marriage can be stronger, although divorce is high at this time
65 years and over
senior citizen, elderly
all body systems affected
bones become brittle
kidney/bladder becomes less efficient
if you are more active- your body shows less signs
short term memory fades first
Alzheimer- irreversible loss of memory, deterioration of intellectual functions, speech, and gait disturbances, and disorientation
arteriosclerosis- thickening of and hardening of walls of the arteries can also decrease the mental abilities
some cope well, and others done
dealing with retirement, physical abilities decrease, financial problems, the knowledge that life is ending.
can lead to low self esteem
important to develop new social contacts
need a sense of belonging, financial security and acceptance
Death and dying
Final stage of growth
experienced by everyone
a disease that cannot be cured and will result in death
people react different
fear of abandonment, and lonliness
anxious about loved ones and unfinished dreams
anxiety will diminish when they feel they have led full lives regarding life after death
Dr. Elizabeth Kubler
The leading expert in the field of death and dying, because of her research
identified the 5 stages of grieving
may not be in order, may not go through all of them, or any of them, my go through them all at once.
denial- refuses to believe
anger- no longer can deny
bargaining- accept death, but wants more time
depression- understands and accepts the fact.
care that provides support and comfort
often in pt homes, but can be in clinic, or hospitals
philosophy of hospice- to die with dignity and comfort
Right to die
law allowing, Right to Die
encouraged LIVE Promise
learn about the end of life services and care
implement plans or advanced directives to ensure wishes are honored.
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
psychologist developed, and stated- the lower needs should be met first before a person can strive to meet higher needs.
lack of something that is required or desired
needs exist from birth to death
influence our behavior
meeting the needs - motivation to act when needs felt, if the action is satisfied then you have satisfaction, and frustration when it is not met.
must prioritize when needs are felt
direct toward meeting the need
someone who always fails tests and wants to pass should- study
Reduce the need and help relieve tension
unconscious acts that help a person deal with unpleasant situation
provide methods for maintaining self esteem and relieving discomfort
reasonable excuse to avoid real reason
placing blame fore ones action on someone else
transferring feelings about a person to someone else
substituting one goal for another to achieve success
transferring of unacceptable or painful ideas, feeling, thoughts into the unconscious minds ( forget )
aware of unacceptable feelings, but refuses to deal with them
disbelief of an event or idea that is too shocking for a person to cope with
dream like process that occurs when a person is awake because they are not satisfied by reality
basic- food, water, oxygen, going to the bathroom, and sleep
important after ^ needs are met
free of anxiety and fear
Love and Affection
3rd level- feel a sense of belonging can give and receive friendship and love
feeling important and worthwhile, self respect, and approval from others
person has obtained full potential, and is what he/she wants to be. confident and self secure
motivation to act when needs are felt.
different needs can have different levels of intensity, the more intense a need, the greater desire to meet it.
work at meeting the need and obtaining satisfactory
reducing the need, by using defense mechanisms