2-3 Reflection (2.3.5 Why did Congress and the president have conflict?…
2.3.5 Why did Congress and the president have conflict?
They came into conflict because of all the things that Johnson wouldn’t do concerning Civil Rights. He wouldn't sign The Bill of Rights as well as other important documents. This caused tension between Congress and the president which eventually lead to the consideration of his impeachment.
2.3.1 Lincoln and Johnson reconstruction plan?
Lincoln wanted to use the 10% plan. This was that as soon as 10% of registered voters in a state took an oath of allegiance to the Union, the state could hold a constitutional convention to rejoin the U.S.
Johnson didn’t follow through with Lincoln’s plan after he was assassinated. He thought that each state had the right to decide how they reconstruct themselves. He let governors to help the states take the steps outlined by Lincoln for the readmission to the Union, but many of them were too lenient. As a result, black codes spread throughout the south and this was an attempt to take African American rights away. Also, as soon as the southerners took the allegiance, their land was returned to them as well at their rights but not their slaves.
2.3.7 Summary of each amendment
All of these amendments were very important to the reconstruction of the United States. The 13th amendment abolished slavery and this was a very difficult thing for people to accept. It was ratified in 1865 and this was a very important move for the U.S. The 14th amendment says that if a person is born in the U.S. then they are a U.S. citizen and are protected by that laws. The 15th amendment states that all citizens have the right to vote no matter where they come from of who they are. These were all critical factors in the U.S. becoming what it is today.
2.3.3 Radical Reconstruction to Presidential Reconstruction
The Radical Reconstruction people wanted blacks to have the same rights and opportunities as everyone else. People thought that the Confederate leaders should be punished for what they did in the war. Johnson also vetoed a Civil Rights Bill because he claimed it would bloat the government. People were mad because he was denying equality to the blacks. Now, the southerners who supported the Union were the new leaders. Although all these changes were happening, such as southern states rewriting their constitution and the ratification of the 14th amendment, President Johnson was the only thing standing in the way. With this knowledge, it was decided to impeach him.
2.3.8 Presidency of Ulysses S Grant
As an army general, President Grant led the Union to victory against the Confederacy. He was a war hero and then became the 18th president of the USA. In the reconstruction process, he wanted to abolish slavery. He worked with Lincoln to reconstruct the country and often opposed Andrew Johnson's ideas. He was able to help lead the country to abolish slavery.
2.3.2 Reconstruction Timeline
December 8, 1863 - Lincoln Lincoln introduced the 10% plan
Early 1646 - Lincoln begins the reconstruction
April 8, 1865 - Lincoln was assassinated and Johnson takes charge
April 15, 1865 - 13 amendment is ratified
December 6, 1965 - Black codes are put into effect
1866-1870 - In this time, all southern states are readmitted into the Union
2.3.6 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments
13th amendment: banned slavery and any involuntary servitude
14th amendment: all people naturalized or born in the U.S. are American citizens no matter race
15th: any U.S. citizen has the right to vote no matter race or color
2.3.4 Congress and Presidential conflict timeline
April 1865: Johnson didn't want to put more radical officers in the cabinet. Congress started to object him
May 29, 1865: Johnson received advice to wait for Congress before moving back with reconstructions plans and he did the opposite.
February 19, 1866: Johnson vetoed a bill to extend the Freedman's Bureau. This caused his adversaries to vie him as a bigger opponent
March 27, 1866: Johnson votes Civil Rights Bill
August 1966: Johnson delivers a speech where he attacks the 14th amendment and Civil Rights
March 2, 1867: Johnson vetoes Reconstruction Act of Congress and Congress overrides his veto