Jacqueline Gutierrez Period 5 Respiratory System (differences between…
Major functions of the
supply body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide
Assist/allow for olfaction--provide for the movement of air across the olfactory epithelium
Assist/allow for speech--movement of air across the vocal cords
Anatomy of Respiratory tract
upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx).
lower respiratory tract include the windpipe (trachea) and within the lungs, the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.
Organs of the Respiratory System
The upper airways or upper respiratory tract includes the nose and nasal passages, paranasal sinuses, the pharynx, and the portion of the larynx above the vocal folds (cords). The lower airways or lower respiratory tract includes the portion of the larynx below the vocal folds, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles.
differences between the right and left lung and right and left primary bronchi
Left lung is smaller with two lobes
Right lung is bigger with three lobes
Right Bronchus is wider, shorter, and straighter
Left Bronchus is narrower, larger, and not as straight
breathing mechanism (physiology)
The alveolar and intrapleural pressures are dependent on certain physical features of the lung. However, the ability to breathe—to have air enter the lungs during inspiration and air leave the lungs during expiration—is dependent on the air pressure of the atmosphere and the air pressure within the lungs.
definitions of lung capacity terminology
tidal volume (tv): amount of air that enters the lungs in a single inhalation or leaves the lungs in a single exhalation of quiet breathing
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV): complemental air; air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal respiration has taken place
vital capacity (VC): total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation; equal to the sum of TV, IRV, and ERV
total lung capacity (TLC): volume of air in the lungs after a maximal inhalation
internal and external respiration
External respiration occurs in the lungs where oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveolar air.
Internal respiration occurs in the metabolizing tissues, where oxygen diffuses out of the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the cells.
disorders of the respiratory system.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) - Irritation of the lungs can lead to asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis and people can develop two or three of these together.
Pneumonia - An infection of the alveoli. It can be caused by many kinds of both bacteria and viruses. Tissue fluids accumulate in the alveoli reducing the surface area exposed to air. If enough alveoli are affected, the patient may need supplemental oxygen.