Jacqueline Gutierrez Period 5 Respiratory System (definitions of lung…
disorders of the respiratory system.
Pneumonia - An infection of the alveoli. It can be caused by many kinds of both bacteria and viruses. Tissue fluids accumulate in the alveoli reducing the surface area exposed to air. If enough alveoli are affected, the patient may need supplemental oxygen.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) - Irritation of the lungs can lead to asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis and people can develop two or three of these together.
internal and external respiration
Internal respiration occurs in the metabolizing tissues, where oxygen diffuses out of the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the cells.
External respiration occurs in the lungs where oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveolar air.
definitions of lung capacity terminology
total lung capacity (TLC): volume of air in the lungs after a maximal inhalation
vital capacity (VC): total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation; equal to the sum of TV, IRV, and ERV
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV): complemental air; air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal respiration has taken place
tidal volume (tv): amount of air that enters the lungs in a single inhalation or leaves the lungs in a single exhalation of quiet breathing
breathing mechanism (physiology)
The alveolar and intrapleural pressures are dependent on certain physical features of the lung. However, the ability to breathe—to have air enter the lungs during inspiration and air leave the lungs during expiration—is dependent on the air pressure of the atmosphere and the air pressure within the lungs.
differences between the right and left lung and right and left primary bronchi
Left Bronchus is narrower, larger, and not as straight
Right Bronchus is wider, shorter, and straighter
Right lung is bigger with three lobes
Left lung is smaller with two lobes
Organs of the Respiratory System
The upper airways or upper respiratory tract includes the nose and nasal passages, paranasal sinuses, the pharynx, and the portion of the larynx above the vocal folds (cords). The lower airways or lower respiratory tract includes the portion of the larynx below the vocal folds, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles.
Anatomy of Respiratory tract
lower respiratory tract include the windpipe (trachea) and within the lungs, the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.
upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx).
Major functions of the
Assist/allow for speech--movement of air across the vocal cords
Assist/allow for olfaction--provide for the movement of air across the olfactory epithelium
supply body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide