Respiratory system Isaiah Sailors period:1 (disorders of the respiratory…
Major functions of the
The main function of the respiratory system is the exchange of oxygen from the atmosphere for carbon dioxide produced by the cells of the body
speech, by vibrating the vocal cords.
provide oxygen for all the cells of the body to undergo cellular reparation
organs of the respiratory system
anatomy of the respiratory tract
pharyngotympanic tubes : connect the ear to the throat
differences between the right and left lung
the left lung has 2 lobes while the right lung has 3 lobes. The left lung is lightly smaller due to the heart being located on the left side.
differences between right and left primary bronchi
The right main bronchi is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left. The right lung has 10 bronchopulmonary segments, but the left lung is more variable and consists of 8 to 10 segments
To breathe, the diaphragm contracts which creates a low pressure in the lungs which allows air to flow in. this air moves through the trachea down to the lungs and then to the alveoli where it can diffuse. to exhale, the diaphragm relaxes which increases the pressure of the lungs again and this forces the air out of the lungs.
definitions of lung capacity terminology
Functional residual capacity (FRC) represents the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration and is the combined RV and ERV.
Vital capacity (VC) is the total amount of exchangeable air. It is the sum of TV, IRV, and ERV.
Total lung capacity (TLC) is the sum of all lung volumes.
Inspiratory capacity (IC) is the total amount of air that can be inspired after a normal tidal volume expiration, so it is the sum of TV and IRV.
tidal volume: During normal quiet breathing, about 500 ml of air moves into and out of the lungs with each breath. This respiratory volume is the tidal volume (TV).
inspiratory reserve volume:The amount of air that can be inspired forcibly beyond the tidal volume (2100 to 3200 ml) is the inspiratory reserve volume (IRV).
expiratory reserve volume (ERV) is the amount of air—normally 1000 to 1200 ml—that can be expelled from the lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration.
1200 ml of air remains in the lungs; this is the residual volume (RV), which helps to keep the alveoli open and prevent lung collapse
internal and external respiration;
Action of the diaphragm: diaphragm contracts creating low pressure
Action of the intercostal muscles: intercostal muscles contract to expand the ribcage which allows the lungs to expand.
quiet expiration is a passive process that depends more on lung elasticity than on muscle contraction
Forced expiration is an active process produced by contracting abdominal wall muscles, primarily the oblique and transversus muscles. These contractions (1) increase the intra-abdominal pressure, which forces the abdominal organs superiorly against the diaphragm, and (2) depress the rib cage.
disorders of the respiratory system
Tuberculosis: Mycobacterium tuberculosis