Respiratory System Evelin Morales Period 5 (Major functions of the…
Major functions of the Respiratory system
Distribution of Air: filters, warms, humidifies air.
Gas Exchange: supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.
Helps to maintain homeostasis.
Filters irritants from inspired air and eliminates them through coughing and sneezing.
Enables sound production as expired air passes over the vocal chords.
Controls acid- base balance and blood pH
Allows olfaction (smell).
Breathing mechanism (physiology)
Is the movement of air from outside the body into, and then out of the lungs (bronchial tree and alveoli).
a mechanics of breathing (pulmonary ventilation).
Composed of inspiration and expiration.
Breathing aka Ventilation, respiration.
The action of breathing in and out is due to changes in pressure within the chest (thorax).
This action is also known as external respiration and is created by the muscles of the chest and the diaphragm changing the size of the chest cavity (and air pressure).
External and internal respiration
Carbon dioxide moves from tissue cells into capillary blood.
Oxyhemoglobin (oxygen plus hemoglobin) breaks down into oxygen and hemoglobin.
Oxygen moves out of blood in the capillary and into tissue cells.
Diffusion: passive movement down a concentration gradient.
External Respiration: close proximity of capillaries in the lungs allows exchange of gases between blood and alveoli by diffusion.
Anatomy of the respiratory tract
They open to the nasal cavity and are lined with mucus membrane that is continuous with that lining the nasal cavity.
The sinuses reduce the weight of the skull and serve as resonant chambers to affect the quality of the voice.
Air- filled spaces within the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones of the skull.
aids in producing sounds for speech.
a common passageway for air and food.
Nasal conchae divide the cavity into passageways that are lined with mucous membrane, and help increase the surface area available to warm, moisturize, and filter incoming air.
a space posterior to the nose that is divided medially by the nasal septum.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Nose- the nose, supported by bone and cartilage, provides an entrance for air in which air is filtered by coarse hairs inside the nostrils.
Two parts or tracts:
Lower respiratory tract (LRT)- trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs.
Upper respiratory tract (URT)- nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, larynx.
Larynx- helps keep particles