accent / dialect (studies (Gary Ives 2014
Interviewed 2 sets of high…
accent / dialect
Gary Ives 2014
- Interviewed 2 sets of high school boys:
- Bradford - 95% Pakistani
- London - Variety of races, high % of EAL
- London used lots of MLE across all races, it created a discourse community and allowed them to converge with each other and gain covert prestige. It also allowed them to diverge from outsiders and adults.
- Bradford spoke Punjabi in informal scenarios but spoke English in more formal spaces and at home. This allowed them to converge together and created a discourse community, it also meant they could diverge from adults and the upper class.
Labov - Martha's Vineyard
- Interviewed 69 people of different social groups and studied their dialect, specifically /au/ (mouse) and /ai/ (mice).
- Found a small group of fishermen that exaggerated certain dialectal features that allowed them to:
diverge from tourists.
gain prestige amongst outsiders.
- The variation was eventually copied and spread throughout the island to become the island's norm.
Labov - 1966
- Studied a New York department store, looking at 3 shops varying in price.
- Found that in the more fancy stores the post vocalic /r/ was more considered.
Cheshire + Edwards
- Did a national dialect survey across UK high schools.
- Found 'them' was used as demonstrative in 97.7% of shcools.
Trudgill - 1970
- Norwich study found that clipping was used, especial ly in the lower class.
- e.g - running > runnin' [ŋ] > [n]
- this was often levelled out as people moved up the social class.
Sadie Ryan - 2019
- Studied a high school in Glasgow, specifically locals and Polish immigrants.
- Looked at style shifting between 'aye' (informal) and 'yes' (formal).
- Found that both groups did so, to blend in with peers and converge with each other. The Polish children also did so in order to avoid 'sticking out' or being bullied due to their differences.
John McWhorter - 2015
- Turkish immigrant families moved to Germany, but adults rarely learnt German fluently, whereas their children did.
- Youths created 'Keizdutsch', a simplified version of German that allowed them to converge with each other.
- accents and dialects should be levelled out to create a national accent/dialect.
- the belief that there is one 'correct' way of speaking.
- accents/ dialects should be embraced and should be varied.
- there is no 'correct' way of speaking.
Mark Thompson - 2008
- BBC director called for more variety in accents in the media.
- Crumbling Castle
- English was once at a peak and has deteriorated since.
- Damp Spoon
-Language has changed over time due to laziness.
Clipping - the shortening of words, removing the end.
Milroy - 2002
- Increased geographical movement leads to disruption of close knit webs/ communities, causing dialect levelling.
- Reduced rural employment and building of new towns/ cities causes levelling.
- 1831 = 34%
- 1931 = 80%
- 1991 = 90%
% living in cities/ large towns in the UK ^^
- 1990s =1.2% working in agriculture