Skeletal and Joints (General Attributes: (Regions of the Body…
Skeletal and Joints
Frame work to connect other tissues and to support our body weight.
Assistance in Movement:
Muscle is attached to the bone with tendons.
Examples are the cranium, ribs, and vertebra.
Calcium and Phosphorus.
Blood Cell Formation:
Eukrocytes, Thrombocytes and Leukrocytes. It is found in red bone marrow.
Found in yellow bone marrow (white) and fat (adipose).
Major Structural Components
Organic- Carbon which is 35% Organic. Examples include cells and EC Matrix.
EC Matrix is composed of Ground Substance and Collagen. Collagen is used for strength and flexibility.
of the bones are 65% minerals.They are there for hardness and they are able to resist compression and twisting.
Articulation and Cartilage
Regions of the Body
Frontal, Orbital, Nasal, Oral and Mental.
Sternal, Axillary, and Mammary.
Acromial, Brachial (arm), Antecubital, Olecranal, Antebrachial, Carpal.
Pollex, Metacrarpal, Palmar, Digital.
Tarsal, Calcaneal, Metatarsal, Digital, Plantar, Hallux.
Scapular, Vertebral, Lumbar, Sacral, Gluteal and Perineal.
Classification and Organization of Bones
Axial and Appendicular
Axial Bones : Cephalic, Vertebral, and Sacral bones.
Appendicular Bones: Upper Limbs, Coxal, Lower Limbs and Pedal bones
Types of Bones:
Long bones: humerus
Flat bones: sternum
Short Bones: talus
Irregular bones: vertebral bones
Tuberosity: Round large projection.
Crest: Narrow Ridge of the bone.
Trochanter: Large, irregular process.
Line: Narrow ridge of the bone.
Tubercle: Small round projection.
Epicondyle: Raised area on (pr above) a condyle.
Spine: Sharp, slender, projection.
Process: Any bony prominence.
Head: Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck.
Facet: Smooth, nearly flat articular surface.
Condyle: Rounded articular projection.
Foramen: Round or oval opening.
Fissure: Narrow, slitlike opening.
Notch: Indentation at the end of a structure.
Fossa: Shallow depression in a bone.
Meatus: Canal-like passage.
Sinus: cavity within a bone with air and mucus membranes.
Compact vs. Spongy bone.
Structure- columns of osteons. Compact bone covers all bone surfaces except cartilage. Periosteom covers all compact bone except the condyls which are covered in cartilage.
Found in layers of the extracellular matrix, ends of long bones and cavities of long bones. It is not made of osteons but instead made of trabecula which is covered with endosteum.
Components of a long bone:
Epiphysis, Diaphysis, Articular Cartilage, Spongy bone, Periosteum, Compact bone, Medullary cavity, Compact bone, Periosteum, Perforating fibers, Nutrient blood vessels and finally, endosteum.
Red and Yellow Marrow:
Red Bone Marrow is found in Spongy bone while yellow is found in diaphysis of long bones.
Red Bone Marrow is the place of blood cell formation. (all bone marrow till about 7 years old)
Yellow Bone Marrow is adipose and fat cells. they are they energy storage.
Red bone marrow is found in children till about 7 years old then slowly transitions to yellow.
Microscopic Components of Bone
Osteogenic Stem Cells
are endosteum and periosteum and it creates bone.
maintain bone health.
are multinucleate and they are formed from several leaukrocytes. They are there for secretion (break down bone tissue)
Cluster of Mesenchymal Cells
Osteoblasts which create the EC Matrix and eventually harden.
Spongy Bone is being created and LATER compact bone forms around the outside. We find this is skull bones and the Clavicle .
Starts with cartilage model
grows larger and transforms to bone
in some bone medullary cavities form
Additioj of blood vessels
cartilage remain at the epiphyseal plate (long bones).
Process of circumferential bone growth
Periosteum becomes the inner layer (osteogenic- widening the bone)
Mostly at endosteal surface. Tearing done with osteoclasts. it builds up with osteoblasts. why does this happen? to keep the bones strong. Out bones change due to our activity, body weight and even when we are in need of calcium.
there are sutures in these joints which are only found in the skull. they don't move.
Syndesmosis is dense regular connective tissue and is found in the distal tibiofibular joint.
Gomphoses is found in the teeth or the maxilae and mandible . They are immovable.
Synchondroses are found in the epiphyseal plate and they connect the rib to the manubrium. They have hyaline cartilage and they are also immovable. Symphyses is found in the pubic symphysis and has intervertebral joints, they are slightly moveable.