Respiratory System Leah Portuguez Period 1 (Anatomy of the Respiratory…
Respiratory System Leah Portuguez Period 1
Internal and External Respiration
Factors influencing this process include the partial pressure gradients, the thickness of the respiratory membrane, surface area available, and ventilation-perfusion coupling.
Oxygen enters the pulmonary capillaries: carbon dioxide leaves the blood and enters the alveoli.
The process of gas exchange that occurs in the lungs.
Carbon dioxide enters the blood, and oxygen leaves the blood and enters the tissue.
The gas exchange that occurs between the systemic capillaries and the tissues.
Definitions of Lung Capacity Terminology
Total lung capacity (TLC)
refers to the total amount of air in the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often unable to exhale fully, resulting in hyperinflation of the lungs and a greater total lung capacity.
Organs of the Respiratory System and Location
Lower Respiratory Tract
All Segments of the Bronchial Tree
Upper Respiratory Tract
Voice Box (Larynx)
Major Functions of the
Internal respiration exchanges gases between the bloodstream and body tissues
Air vibrating the vocal cords creates sound
External respiration exchanges gases between the lungs and the bloodstream
Olfaction AKA Smelling
Inhalation and Exhalation are Pulmonary Ventilation
Anatomy of the Respiratory Tract
- the hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to the lungs and holding the vocal cords in humans and other mammals; the voice box
- a large membranous tube reinforced by rings of cartilage, extending from the larynx to the bronchial tubes and conveying air to and from the lungs; the windpipe.
- paranasal sinuses, which are air cavities in the cranial bones, especially those near the nose and connecting to it. Most individuals have four paired cavities located in the cranial bone or skull.
- The lungs take in oxygen. The cells of your body need oxygen to live and carry out their normal functions. The lungs also get rid of carbon dioxide, a waste product of the cells
- lined with a mucous membrane that helps keep your nose moist by making mucus so you won't get nosebleeds from a dry nose. There are also little hairs that help filter the air you breathe in, blocking dirt and dust from getting into your lungs.
Bronchi and bronchioles
- any of the major air passages of the lungs which diverge from the windpipe
- the part projecting above the mouth on the face of a person or animal, containing the nostrils and used for breathing and smelling.
Alveoli (air sacs)
- any of the many tiny air sacs of the lungs which allow for rapid gaseous exchange
Differences Between the Right and Left Lung and Primary Bronchi
Right and Left Lung
- The right lung is shorter, because the liver sits high, tucked under the rib cage, but it is broader than the left. The left lung is smaller because of the space taken up by the heart. Each lung is separated into lobes branching off the main bronchus; the right lung has three lobes, while the left has only two lobes.
Right and Left Bronchi
- The right primary bronchus subdivides into three secondary bronchi, which deliver oxygen to the three lobes of the right lung; the superior, middle and inferior lobe. The right primary bronchi is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left primary bronchi.
Breathing Mechanism (physiology)
Air moves in and out of the lungs in response to differences in pressure. When the air pressure within the alveolar spaces falls below atmospheric pressure, air enters the lungs (inspiration) occurs when the larynx is open. When the air pressure within the alveoli exceeds atmospheric pressure, air is blown from the lungs (expiration). Atmospheric pressure remains relatively constant, flow is determined by how much above or below atmospheric pressure the pressure within the lungs rises or falls.
Disorders of the Respiratory System
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
- Characterized by an irreversible decrease in the ability to force air out of the lungs.
- Usually caused by the obstruction of the pharynx during sleep.
- A reversible obstructive condition caused by an immune response that causes victims to wheeze and gasp for air as their inflamed respiratory passages constrict. Marked by acute episodes and symptoms-free periods.
- Promoted by free radicals and other carcinogens in tobacco smoke, is extremely aggressive and metastasizes rapidly.
- An infectious disease caused by an airborne bacterium, mainly affects the lungs.