Components of the Skeletal System (Cells (Osteoblasts; cells that secrete…
Components of the Skeletal System
Blood Cell formation
Classifications of bones
Irregular Bones; usually found in groups, have specialized functions
Flat Bones; provide protection and large muscle attachment sites
Sphenoid Bones; alters the angle of muscle insertion
Short Bones; offer support and shock absorption
Long Bones; serve as levers
Epiphysis; one on each end, the ends of long bones.
Diaphysis; tubular shaft that forms the long axis of a long bone.
Compact Bone; dense outer layer of bone.
Periosteum; outer covering for the entire bone, except on the epiphyses.
Spongy Bone; honeycomb of trabeculae, small needle-like pieces.
Medullary Cavity; the center of the diaphysis, contains no bone tissue
Epiphyseal Line; known as the "growth plates". Lies between the epipyses and the diaphysis
Fibrous Joints; bones are connected by fibrous tissue, dense irregular connective tissue. Most fibrous joints are immovable or only slightly movable.
Sutures; immovable joints that knit bones in the skull together. Very short. interconnecting fibers.
Gomphoses; peg-in-socket joint. The only example is in the articulation of a tooth in its socket.
Syndesmoses; bones are held together by ligaments. Can vary in length but are typically longer than sutures.
Synovial joints; most movable joints in the body. Most joints in the body are synovial, especially in the limbs.
Articular cartilage; ends of the opposing bones are covered with articular cartilage.
Synovial cavity; joint cavity is a potential space, holds a small amount of synovial fluid.
Synovial fluid; slippery lubricating, fluid. Reduces shock and nourishes the articular cartilage.
Articular capsule; joint cavity enclosed by a two-layer articular capsule or joint capsule.
Cartilaginous joints; the articulating bones are united by cartilage. Lack a joint cavity and are not highly movable.
Symphyses; a joint where fibrocartilage unites the bones. Little movement involved. Found in the intervertebral joints and the pubic symphysis.
Synchondroses; a joint where hyaline cartilage unites the bones. There is no movement. Found in the epiphyseal lines and between the first rib and the manubrium.
Elastic Cartilage; more elastic than hyaline, is able to tolerate repeated bending better than hyaline.
Fibrocartilage; resists both strong compression and strong pulling forces. Is found in certain cartilages and ligaments that experience both pulling and compression.
Hyaline Cartilage; the most abundant kind of cartilage, provides support through flexibility and resilience.
Osteoblasts; cells that secrete and produce the organic components of the bone matrix; ground substance and collagen fibers.
Osteocytes; function to keep the bone matrix healthy.
Osteogenic Cells; stem cells that differentiate into bone-forming osteoblast.
Osteoclasts; breaks down bone.