Reading Notes: Modules: 31- 33 (Module 31: Studying and Encoding Memories,…
Reading Notes: Modules: 31- 33
Module 31: Studying and Encoding Memories
We are what we remember
Memory: the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information
Alzheimer's disease causes progressive memory loss, and causes the brain's overall structure to diminish over time
Recall: a measure of memory in which a person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill in the blank test
Recognition: a measure of memory in which the person identifies terms previously learned, as on a multiple choice test
Relearning: a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again
Ask Yourself and Test Yourself: Having a memory impairing disease or an exceptional gift would effect my life because it would set me apart from the rest of people and make it hard to relate to people. Recall is better to check memory on a test.
Encoding: the process of getting information into the memory system- for example, by extracting meaning
Storage: the process of retaining encoded information over time
Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage
Parallel Processing: processing many aspects of a problem simultaneously, the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions
Sensory Memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
Short Term Memory: activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as digits of a phone number while calling, before the information is stored or forgotten
Long Term Memory: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
Working Memory: a newer understanding of short-term memory that adds conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual information, and of information retrieved from long term memory
Ask Yourself and Test Yourself: I have used the three parts of my memory system today studying for a chemistry test. Sensory, short term, long term. Working memory utilizes both short term and long term memory. Auditory and visual
Explicit Memory: retention of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
Effortful Processing: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
Automatic Processing: unconscious encoding of information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Implicit Memory: retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection.
Learning is not automatic
Sensory memory records sights and sounds
Iconic Memory: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a picture-image memory lasting no more tenths a few tenths of a second
Echoic Memory: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere words and sounds can still be recalled within 3-4 seconds
George Miller proposed our short term memory can hold about 7 things at a time
Short term memories have a limited life
Chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
Mnemonics: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Acronyms help us memorize things
Hierarchies: broad concepts divided and subdivided that come with having a deeper understanding of something
Spacing Effect: the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield long term retention than is achieved through missed study or practice
Testing Effect: enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. Also, sometimes referred to as retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.
Ask Yourself and Test Yourself: Life would be difficult if all memory processes were effortful because you'd always have to remind yourself to remember things. However, it might be better because you could choose to remember more important things. I was not surprised so much of memory is automatic. Automatic processing is like studying, and automatic processing is like reading the time.
Shallow Processing: encoding on a basic level, based on the structure or appearance of words
Deep Processing: encoding semantically, based on the meaning of words; tends to yield the best retention
Our brains fill in the blanks, which is why we might remember notes more than the class itself
People remember things better that are related to themselves or their family or friends
Ask Yourself and Test Yourself: I should test myself or make acronyms to better retain information. Test yourself on them and study them daily, make an acronym, relate it to something familiar. Deep processing is used which leads to greater retention.
Module 32: Storing and Retrieving Memories
Semantic Memory - explicit memory of facts and general knowledge; one of our two conscious memory systems (the other is episodic memory)
Episodic Memory - explicit memory of personally experienced events one of our two conscious memory systems 9 the other is semantic memory)
Hippocampus - a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit (conscious) memories-of facts and events-for storage
Memory Consolidation - the neural storage of a long-term memory
Flashbulb Memory - a clear, sustained memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) - an increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation; a neural basis for learning and memory
Priming - the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
Encoding Specificity Principle - the idea that cues and contexts specific to a particular memory will be most effective in helping us recall it
Mood-Congruent Memory - the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
Serial Position Effect - our tendency to recall best the last (recency effect) and first (primacy effect) items in a list
Ask Yourself / Test Yourself
Stress can help with remembering something as it can remind you of another stressful time, however stress can cloud the mind and prevent successful remembrance.
The cerebellum and basal ganglia are important for implicit memory processing, and the frontal lobes and hippocampus are key to explicit memory processing.
Module 33: Forgetting, Memory Construction, and Improving Memory
Anterograde Amnesia - an inability to form new memories
Retrograde Amnesia - an inability to retrieve information from one's past
Proactive Interference - the forward-acting disruptive effect of older learning on the recall of new information
Retroactive Interference - the backward-acting disruptive effect of newer learning on the recall of old information
Repression - in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Reconsolidation - a process in which previously stored memories, when retrieved, are potentially altered before being stored again
Misinformation Effect - occurs when misleading information has distorted one's memory of an event
Source Amnesia - faulty memory for how, when, or where information was learned or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories
Déjà Vu - that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
Ask Yourself / Test Yourself
(1) Encoding failure: Unattended information never entered our memory system. (2) Storage decay: Information fades from our memory. (3) Retrieval failure: We cannot access stored information accurately, sometimes due to interference or motivated forgetting.