Respiratory System Julianna Soto Period 2 (Anatomy of respiratory tract…
Respiratory System Julianna Soto Period 2
Anatomy of respiratory tract
respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration
Voice box (larynx)
Large airways (bronchi)
take in oxygen
Differences between right and left lung
the right lung has three lobes
left lung is smaller because of the space taken up by the hear
left has only two lobes
Each lung is separated into lobes branching off the main bronchus
Organs of the respiratory tract and location
Upper respiratory tract
plays a role in speech.
help make the skull lighter.
essential to human speech.
help move them to the nose to be sneezed or blown out.
Lower respiratory tract
responsible for providing oxygen to capillaries and exhaling carbon dioxide.
create the network of intricate passages that supply the lungs with air.
Located just below the larynx, the trachea is the main airway to the lungs.
contracts and relaxes to allow air into the lungs.
Major functions of the respiratory system
Inhalation and Exhalation Are Pulmonary Ventilation—That’s Breathing
External Respiration Exchanges Gases Between the Lungs and the Bloodstream
helps the body maintain homeostasis, or balance among the many elements of the body’s internal environment.
Internal Respiration Exchanges Gases Between the Bloodstream and Body Tissues
Air Vibrating the Vocal Cords Creates Sound
Olfaction, or Smelling, Is a Chemical Sensation
disorders of the respiratory system.
infection of the alveoli.Tissue fluids accumulate in the alveoli reducing the surface area exposed to air.
Periodic constriction of the bronchi and bronchioles makes it more difficult to breathe.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Irritation of the lungs can lead to asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis and people can develop two or three of these together.
irritant reaching the bronchi and bronchioles will stimulate an increased secretion of mucus
internal and external respiration;
Internal respiration occurs in the metabolizing tissues, where oxygen diffuses out of the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the cells.
External respiration occurs in the lungs where oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveolar air
chest wall expands out and away from the lungs
air fills the lungs, the elastic recoil within the tissues of the lung exerts pressure back toward the interior of the lungs. These outward and inward forces compete to inflate and deflate the lung with every breath.
lungs recoil to force the air out of the lungs. The intercostal muscles relax, returning the chest wall to its original position
diaphragm also relaxes, moving higher into the thoracic cavity
definitions of lung capacity terminology;
Expiratory reserve capacity
ERV The maximum volume of air that can be voluntarily exhaled
total amount of air in the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible
TLC The entire volume of the lung, circa 5 liters
Functional residual capacity
FRV) Volume left in the lungs at the end of a normal breath which is not normally part of the subdivisions
IC The maximum volume that can be inhaled
VT The normal to-and-fro respiratory exchange of 500 cc; vital capacity is the maximum amount of exhalable air; after a full inspiration, which added to the residual volume, is the total lung capacity
VC The maximum volume that can be inhaled and exhaled