Respiratory system Sarah Ramirez P.1 (Anatomy of the respiratory tract…
Respiratory system Sarah Ramirez P.1
Major functions of the respiratory system
The Upper respiratory system warms, moistens, and filters air
The lower respiratory system consists of conducting (filters, warms, and moisten incoming air ) and respiratory zone structures (where gas exchange occurs)
Anatomy of the respiratory tract
organs of the respiratory system and location
the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs.
Differences between the right and left lung and right and left
The right lung consists of three lobes and two bronchi, it is also shorter and wider.
The left lung consists of two lines and one bronchus, it is also narrower and wider
The right main bronchi is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left main bronchus.
Inspiration- occurs when the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract increases the dimensions (and volume) of the thorax
Expiration- is largely passive , occurring as the inspiratory muscles relax and lungs recoil
Definitions of lung capacity terminology
The total lung capacity (TLC), about 6,000 mL, is the maximum amount of air that can fill the lungs (TLC = TV + IRV + ERV + RV).
The vital capacity (VC), about 4,800 mL, is the total amount of air that can be expired after fully inhaling (VC = TV + IRV + ERV = approximately 80 percent TLC). The value varies according to age and body size.
The expiratory reserve volume (ERV), about 1,200 mL, is the additional air that can be forcibly exhaled after the expiration of a normal tidal volume.
The functional residual capacity (FRC), about 2,400 mL, is the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration (FRC = RV + ERV).
Internal and external respiration
is the gas exchange that occurs between the systemic capillaries and the tissues. Carbon dioxide enters the blood, and oxygen leaves the blood and enters the tissues.
is the process of gas exchange that occurs in the lungs. Oxygen enters the pulmonary capillaries; carbon dioxide leaves the blood and enters the alveoli. Factors influencing this process include the partial pressure gradients, the thickness of the respiratory membrane, surface area available, and ventilation-perfusion coupling (matching alveolar ventilation with pulmonary perfusion).
Disorders of the respiratory system
Asthma - Periodic constriction of the bronchi and bronchioles makes it more difficult to breathe
Pneumonia - An infection of the alveoli. It can be caused by many kinds of both bacteria and viruses. Tissue fluids accumulate in the alveoli reducing the surface area exposed to air. If enough alveoli are affected, the patient may need supplemental oxygen