Egyptian Achievements (Egyptian Writing :scroll: (Writing in Ancient Egypt…
Writing in Ancient Egypt
Hieroglyphics included more than 600 symbols, each one standing for different sounds in the Egyptian language. Hieroglyphics could be written either up or down, and left or right. The only way to determine which way a text was written is by looking at the direction of individual symbols.
Egyptian Writing was called hieroglyphics, and was one of the earliest writing systems in the world.
Early examples of hieroglyphics were carved into stone. Eventually the Egyptians learned to write on papyrus, a paper-like material made from reeds. Scrolls were written on with brushes and ink.
The Rosetta Stone
Historians and archaeologists didn't know how to reed hieroglyphs before the discovery of the Rosetta Stone.
A lucky discovery by a French soldier in 1799 uncovered the Rosetta Stone.
The Rosetta Stone had three languages engraved, Hieroglyphs, Greek, and a earlier form of Egyptian writing. Scholars were able to match the Greek letters with the Hieroglyphics, figuring out what the hieroglyphics said.
Since papyrus doesn't decay in arid climates, many Egyptian texts survive to this day.
Today archaeologists can read Egyptian texts such as historical and scientific records, literary works, and religious books.
Temples, Tombs, and Art
Egypt's Temples and Tombs
Egyptian believed that temples were the homes of the gods, and were used for rituals and sacrifices to them.
Stone sphynxes (imaginary creatures with the body of a lion and the head of either a human or other animal) lined the paths to the entrance of the temple. At the entrance there was usually stone obelisks (Four sided pillar that forms a point at the top).
The insides were lavishly decorated with paintings and hieroglyphics, as well as statues of gods and pharaohs.
Egypt's Great Temples
The Temple of Luxor was built in the capital city.
The Temple of Karnak was Egypt's largest temple and was built in honor of Re, the sun god. Inside the temple were huge columns supporting the roof. The columns and walls were decorated with hieroglyphics and paintings. Statues of gods and pharaohs stood along the walls as well. The sanctuary, the most sacred part of the building, was at the far end.
The Temple of Abu Simbel was build by Ramses the Great and was carved out of stone cliffs. At the temple's entrance were four 66-foot-tall statues that showed Ramses as pharaoh. Nearby were smaller statues of his family
Painted on canvas, papyrus, pottery, plaster, and wood. Art found in temples is connected to the belief in the afterlife, while art found in tombs is meant for enjoyment in the afterlife.
Egyptian art has a unique style: people's heads and legs are always seen from the side, while upper bodies and shoulders are shown straight on. The size of figures indicates their importance in society (the larger the figure, the more important in society).
Stone working and metalworking also practiced.
King Tutankhamen's (King Tut's) tome included jewelry, ivory, robes, and a burial mask. The treasures found in the tome have taught us about Egyptian burial practices and beliefs.
Ideas and Vocabulary
: Egyptians made lasting achievements in writing, architecture, and art.
Main Idea #1
: The Egyptians developed a writing system using hieroglyphs.
Main Idea #2
: The Egyptians created magnificent temples, tombs, and works of art
: Egyptian system of writing using mostly symbols.
: a long-lasting, paper-like material made from reeds.
: A stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics, the early Egyptian language, and Greek.
: imaginary creatures with the bodies of lions and the heads of other animals or humans.
: A tall, four-sided pillar that is pointed at the top.
: "King Tutankhamen" or "King Tut", ruled Egypt as pharaoh for 10 years until his death at age 19. His tomb was discovered intact and filled with treasures that teach us about burial practices and beliefs