Dictatorships and Single Party States (Maintenance ( Role of the Military,…
Dictatorships and Single Party States
Evalita had a desire to be into film and acting. However she failed and found herself in the business media where her and Peron had control and influences. only certain types of music was. being played
PERON: He did tolerate his oppositions to his government therefore he censored the press , controlled universities, stoped student demonstrations.
During the Great Depression, the market for coffee dropped significantly.
President Washington Luis held on to "hard money" policies, which as a result led to rapid exhaustion of the gold reserves.
-Eva Peron: Was in business with the radio.
: Groupo de Oficiales Unidos (GOU) formed after a military split & Peron was the founder
The military removed President Luis from office and put Vargus in his place (1930) temporarily until elections.
Because Vargus was charisma with strong leadership demonstrated when he push aside military officers who wish to rule and consolidate power in presidency. After being put in power, Vargus centralized his power by appointing. new state government that will answer to him.
Vargas was put into power by the military.
Great Depression was a factor to consolidating power for Vargus. President Luis was insisting with maintaining gold standards to accommodate to his foreign lenders. Therefore, politicians resented their president and the military joined to bring the president and write a new constitution.
While Peron was in a 17 year exile the Military and Civilian government ruled the country but with little success. Therefore, Peron was nominated as president again by the military for re-election.
Peron: Cult of personality increased sp he felt secure to repress his opposition by having secret polices and torture his enemies. - After Eva's death his cult was brought down, thus making the Catholic Church his oppositions - The navy revolted against Peron making him recognize his mistakes and left for exile.
Difference in Vargus/Peron
Peron's Political issues: ran against radical candidat. The candidate had support from the US with business and investment. Also had support from the oligarchy who was allied with middle class people and saw that workers with power was a threat.
Also lost support as a union leader because of his socialist and communist ideas . However was still able to improve living standards for workers.
Role of the Military, Police and Special Forces
The Brazilian constitution established a Chamber of Deputies that placed government authority over the private economy
The military served as an integral part of maintaining internal order.
As president, Peron consolidated power by ensuring military support. He got rid of the current army leadership and replaced it with officers that were loyal to him.
Brazilian corporatism was actually a strategy used to to increase industrial output by using a strong nationalist appeal and co-opting workers' demands under the banner of nationalism.
Vargas restricted the state power that each governor had with the Intervenors Code.
The GOU attacked organized labor, took over unions, suppressed media, and jailed opposition leaders because they believed Argentina must have a submissive working class to enact the ISI program and achieve economic goals.
Peron obtained and maintained power by improving the social conditions especially for the life of the urban working class.
He created a system of pensions and health benefits, regulated work hours, put in a minimum wage, and made it harder for employers to fire people
Eva Peron helped her husband stay in power through improving the lives of women, children, minorities, and the poor descamisados.
Style and Policies
ISI (Import Substitution Industrialization)
is a trade and economic policy that was based on the idea that the country should reduce foreign influence and dependence through local production.
Both Vargas and Peron saw industrialization as the equal to "progress." As a result, they placed priority on ISI policies.
Adoption of ISI was largely due to the Great Depression
Banks, utilities and certain foreign owned companies were nationalized.
Vargus eliminated all the racist in Brazil because he wanted to rule as a dictator to help shape his ideology. Vargus surrounded himself with help to sell resources and service essentials durning WWII to help with war and benefiting the country.
Worker's Policy/ Social
Vargas was named "The Father of the Poor."
Vargas advocated a program of social welfare and reform similar to the New Deal.
Vargus aimed for industrialization and end independency from foreign countries. Therefore, aiming for workers to work under nationalism would benefit the country.
The Electoral Code of 1932 provided mandatory voting. secret ballot, and suffrage for working women. Those who were illiterate were unable to vote however.
The Constitution of 1934 put up labor provisions for minimum wage, children and women's labor, paid vacations, and unjust firing.
The main objective of labor policy was to repress the urban working class to organize without the state, they wanted to incorporate the working class as government supporters.
The Ministry of Labor, Industry, and Commerce and the Bureaus of Reconciliation and Arbitration was created.
Majority of Brazilians were illiterate.
The Education System was authoritarian, they were taught Catholic conservative values.
Brazilian Education Association (ABE)
aimed for decentralization, a common curriculum from grades 1-8, diverse programs for above 8th grade, and a fixed percentage of income for education.
National Department of Coffee
Petrobas was proposed, a state monopoly on all things that related to petroleum.
Oil became the backbone of nationalism.
Provided protection for urban workers who gathered into a working class alliance supported by the state.
Peron's social policy was to support the industrialization meanwhile to improve the quality of life for workers. This policy was important to emphasize on Eva's role; setting up foundations, building hospitals.
Peron's social policy also followed the Catholic Church doctrine to go against the brutal capitalism. Instead demanded wages & labor conditions for workers.
Eva Women Suffrage
Peron was successful in his first term for keeping his social policies. Workers did achieve better quality of life in Latin America, had decent homes because of the government house projects and social security. However, the elite groups despised of Peron and Eva for making them lose their social power under his governmenting.
Vargus created the Estado Novo (New State) that was concentrated on making Brazil a modern state. Promotes industrialization, economical development through centralizing administration. Borrowed this idea from Mussolinni which made the racist group felt they had support from Vargus because he destroyed communist opposition
When Vargas was put into power by the military. He was names provisional president. He was able to rule by decree.