Respiratory System (Disorders of the Respiratory System (Birth Defects:…
Disorders of the Respiratory System
Birth Defects: genetic disorder, baby over secretes mucus that is clogs up airways and pulls it in alveoli. no gas exchange can be done if alveoli is filled with mucus. causes difficulty breathing and leads to death. cystic fibrious: oversecretion of thick mucus clogs respiratory system.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): patients most likely always have a smoking history. major cause of death and disability the the United States. labored or difficulty breathing (dyspnea) becomes progressively severe. fissure is not getting enough oxygen because the narrow tubes the airway air can not go in and respiratory system can fail.
Emphesyma: emphesyma affects alveoli and what happens is a healthy aveoli are pockets of circles individual alveolar sacs but what happens with empheysa is those savs are broken up and becomes one large structure. airways collapse during expiration, alveoli enlarges as adjacent chamber break through and chronic inflammation promotes lung fibrious.
Lung Cancer: 3 common types (squamous cell carchoma adencarciom,carcinoma). associated with smoking, it's an allergic reaction in which the air and things (dust) that you breathe is going to cause, 1/3 of all cancer deaths in US (3rd cause of all cancer death in US).
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): unexplained infant death, children under 6 years old pass away in their sleep, can be caused by due to neural respiratory control center or abnormal heart rhythm.
Asthma: common disorder in people that live in California and has to do with bad air quality, chronic inflamed hypersensative bronchiole passages. allergic reaction in which the air and things (dust) you breathe in cause inflammation of the bronchioles.
Chronic Bronchitis: mucus production increases, mucosa becomes inflamed causing the infection. pooled mucus impairs ventilation, caused some kind accident, jonathan .
Aging Effects: blood oxygen levels decrease, more risks of respiratory tract infection, vital capacity decreases, elasticity of lungs decreases, stimulating effect of carbon dioxide decreases. as you age you natrually lose elasticity of lungs.
Anatomy of the Respiratory Tract
Nasal Cavity: roof of nasal cavity contains the olfactory receptors which are connected to the olfactory bulb and the tract. these receptors are located in mucousa on superior surface. function: moistens air, traps incoming foreign particles (lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium). nasal cavity is divided by nasal septum.
Function of the Upper Respiratory Tract: gas exchanges between blood and external enviornmental, passageways to lungs purify, warm and humidify the incoming air.
Paranasal Sinuses: the cavities (spaces) within the bone, 4 bones (frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillary bone. contain paranasal sinuses. Function: produce mucus and lighten skull. chambers for speech and creates an echoing chamber for creating voice and sound.
three regions of the pharynx: nasopharynx- superior region behind nasal cavity (passage of air only). oropharynx- middle region behind mouth. laryngopharynx- inferior region attached to larynx.
Function: aids in food, water, air, and swallowing. oropharynx and laryngopharynx are common passage ways for air, food, and water. muscular passage from nasal cavity to larynx.
Trachea (windpipe): the whole respiratory tract is lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Function: connects larynx with bronchi. fairly rigid because of the c- shaped rings madeof hyaline cartlidge to keep airway open at all times.
Primary Bronchi: left side has presence of heart which takes up space so the lung is further away from the mid-line meaning the tube that leads into the lung has to be longer to be able to reach it. enters the lungs at hilus, formed by division of trachea. (terminal/ bronchioles: tiny tiny air tubes.
major organ of the respiratory system, occupies most of the thoracic cavity (heart occupies the other part), base rests on diaphragm (inferior part) (wide), and apex is near clavicle (superior portion).
lungs are divided into lobes, 3 (superior, middle, inferior), but are divided by the fissures. 2 on the left: superior and inferior lobe seperated by oblique fissure. 3 on the right: superior, middle, and inferior lobes seperated by oblique and horizontal fissure.
Nose: air enters through the external nares (nostrils). on lateral sides of nasal cavity are bones that kinda stick out, the superior, medial and inferior cochas.
Definitions of Lung Capacity Terminology
Inspirational Capacity: (tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume) total amount of air that can be taken in by the lungs.
total lung capacity: (sum of all the volumes) inspirational reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, residual volume.
Functional Residual Capacity: (residual volume + expiratory reserve volume) During normal breathing, the functional residual capacity is the amount of air that remains in the lungs.
Modified Respiratory Movement: coughing, sneezing, crying (sobbing), laughing, hiccuping, yawning, express emotion, and clear airway. Can change the rate or depth respiration.
Measured using a spirometer to test the lung function.
Respiratory Cycle= 1 respiration= 1 inhalation and 1 exhalation.
Dead Space Volume: air remaining in conducting zone, does not reach alveoli.
Adults about 12 breaths per minute (can range from 12-20 as you get older it decreases).
Expiratory Reserve Volume: additional air expired during forced exhalation (extra air coming out lungs).
Residual Volume: amount of air left in alveoli after forced expiration, keeps them inflated so lungs don't collapse on itself (maximum air you can take and breathe out).
Inspiratory Reserve Volume: additional air taken in during maximal inhalation (amount of air you can force out force in after initial intake of air).
Tidal Volume: air move by one respiration, about 500 mL, during normal breathing at rest (amount of air a person inhales).
Dyspnea: rapid breathing.
Tachypnea: rapid breathing.
Eupnea: normal, quiet breathing.
Apnea: temporary cessation of breathing.
Expiration: movement of air out of lung, will activate and thats going to flow allow for a greater force that it's going to force air out of my lungs. Higher than ATP which means air is going to flow out. Intercostal muscles relax bringing the rib cage down and in. The sternum moves back down forward and the diaphragm relaxes and moves up back to it's normal size.
Respiration: entire process of exchanging gases between atmosphere and body cells. Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria of the cell. Oxygen is carried as oxyhemogoblin in blood. Internal Respiration: exchange of gases between blood and body cells. Breathing or Ventilation: moving air in and out of lungs.
Inspiration: Flow of air into lung, pressure inside the lungs os less than ATP. Activated when trying to get more into lungs than during normal breathing. Moves ribs up and sternum forward (ribs flare out). Diaphragm moves down.
Pulmonary Ventilation: movement of air in lungs depends on pressure gradient. Stays constant at 750 mm per mercury. Only pressure we can control is the pressure within lungs. When pressure is low in the lungs and not ATP then air is flowing in. When pressure is higher than 760 mm then it flows out.
Major Functions of the
Major organ of the Respiratory System are the lungs.
Gas exchanges between blood and external enviornmental.
Passageways to lungs purify, warm, and humidify incoming air.
Differences Between the Right and Left Lung and Right and Left Primary Bronchi
differences between right and left lung
Left Lung: smaller (narrow) than right lung due to the lack of free space, space taken up by heart.
Right Lung: larger than left lung but shorter and also weighs more.
differences between right and left primary bronchi
Left Primary Bronchi: has presence of heart which takes up space.
Right Primary Bronchi: much more vertical than the left primary bronchi, wider, and shorter. supplies the three right pulmonary lobes.
Organs of the Respiratory System and Location
Upper Respiratory Tract
Function: passageways for air, food, water, and swallowing. Location: superior to the larynx inferior to nasal concride.
Olfactory receptors (sense of smell) located in mucosa on superior surface. rest is lined with respiratory mucosa which moistens the air and traps incoming particles.
Cavities within the bones- frontal, sphenoid ethmoid, and maxillary bone. This lightens the skull and produces mucus. Resonance chambers for speech. Function: lighten the skull.
Air enters nose through external nares (nostrils). nasal cavity (inferior of nose) divided by nasal septum.
Lower Respiratory Tract
Bronchial Tree: function: left and right bronchi are for air exchange (gas). the bronchioles controls the exchange of gasses with alveloi. location: inside the lungs.
Trachea (windpipe): function: airway (provides air flow to and from the lungs for respiration) location: inferior to larynx and crosses the sternum (breast bone).
Lungs: function: carry out exchange of gas as we breathe. location: either side of the chest.
Larynx (voice box): function: voice box (manipulates and controls the pitch and volume. Location: inferior to epiglottis and superior to the trachea. right in the middle of the throat.
Lobes: bring oxygen into bloodstream and remove carbon dioxide. Location: lower half of the lungs.
Alveoli: function: allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to move between the lungs and bloodstream. location: left lung lower half.
External: air leaving lung. Lungs decrease in size and ribcage contracts, diaphragm moves up. Passive Process: diaphragm and rib muscles relax. Forced Expiration: contraction of intercostal (ribs) muscles and abdominal mucles.
Internal: flow of air into lung. Lungs fill, diaphragm moves down. Forced inhalation: scalances muscles, sternocleidomoastoid, and pectoralis minor, muscles contract and ribs rise.