Respiratory System, Miranda Mancilla, Per. 2 (Anatomy of the Respiratory…
Respiratory System, Miranda Mancilla, Per. 2
Disorders of the Respiratory System
An infectious disease caused by an airborne bacterium, mainly affects the lungs.
Promoted by free radicals and other carcinogens in tobacco smoke, is extremely aggressive and metastasizes rapidly.
Marked by acute episodes and symptoms-free periods.
A reversible obstructive condition caused by an immune response that causes victims to wheeze and gasp for air as their inflamed respiratory passages constrict.
Usually caused by the obstruction of the pharynx during sleep.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Characterized by an irreversible decrease in the ability to force air out of the lungs.
Internal and External Respiration
Is the gas exchange that occurs between the systemic capillaries and the tissues.
Carbon dioxide enters the blood, and oxygen leaves the blood and enters the tissue.
The process of gas exchange that occurs in the lungs.
Oxygen enters the pulmonary capillaries: carbon dioxide leaves the blood and enters the alveoli.
Factors influencing this process include the partial pressure gradients, the thickness of the respiratory membrane, surface area available, and ventilation-perfusion coupling.
Definitions of Lung Capacity Terminology
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
Represents the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration and is the combined RV and ERV.
Vital Capacity (VC)
The total amount of exchangeable air. The sum of TV, IRV, and ERV.
Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
The total amount of air that can be inspired after a normal tidal volume expiration, so it is the sum of TV and IRV.
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
The sum of all lung volumes.
Breathing Mechanism (Physiology)
When the air pressure within the alveolar spaces falls below atmospheric pressure, air enters the lungs (inspiration) occurs when the larynx is open.
When the air pressure within the alveoli exceeds atmospheric pressure, air is blown from the lungs (expiration).
Air moves in and out of the lungs in response to differences in pressure.
Atmospheric pressure remains relatively constant, flow is determined by how much above or below atmospheric pressure the pressure within the lungs rises or falls.
Differences Between the Right & Left Lung and Right & Left Primary Bronchi
Right Primary Bronchi v. Left Primary Bronchi
The right primary bronchi is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left primary bronchi.
The right primary bronchus subdivides into three secondary bronchi, which deliver oxygen to the three lobes of the right lung; the superior, middle and inferior lobe.
Right Lung v. Light Lung
Right lung has three lobes while the left lung has two lobes.
The right lung is shorter, because the liver sits high, tucked under the rib cage, but it is broader than the left.
The left lung is smaller because of the space taken up by the heart.
Organs of the Respiratory System and Location
Lower Respiratory System
Upper Respiratory System
Anatomy of the Respiratory Tract
Nose and Paranasal Sinuses
: the part projecting above the mouth on the face of a person or animal, containing the nostrils and used for breathing and smelling.
: extends from the base of the skull to the level of C6.
Bronchi and Bronchioles
: any of the major air passages of the lungs which diverge from the windpipe
: a large membranous tube reinforced by rings of cartilage, extending from the larynx to the bronchial tubes and conveying air to and from the lungs; the windpipe.
: take in oxygen. The cells of your body need oxygen to live and carry out their normal functions. The lungs also get rid of carbon dioxide, a waste product of the cells.
: the hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to the lungs and holding the vocal cords in humans and other mammals; the voice box
Major Functions of the Respiratory System
Dispose of carbon dioxide.
Warms, humidifies, and filters the air.
Supply the body with oxygen.
Responsible for gas exchange.