LomeliVanessaRespiratorySystem (Disorders of the Respiratory System (Lung…
accessory muscles assist in expiration and for the diaphragm to contract and relax forcefully
Costal (shallow) breathing. not much effort needed
Found in between the rib bones, contraction elevates the ribs and sternum
Hiccups are spasms in the diaphragm. Caused by fast eating, intense laughter, and temperature
Diaphragmatic (deep breathing) requires more diaphragm effort
Thin, tough dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
contraction expands the thoracic cavity
Organs and Locations
Flank in the mediastinum in throax
approximately at the level of T7 in an erect (standing) person, Each bronchus runs obliquely in the mediastinum before plunging into the medial depression
descends from the larynx through the neck and into the mediastinum. It ends by dividing into the two main bronchi at midthorax
extends for about 5 cm (2 inches) from the level of the third to the sixth cervical vertebra. Superiorly it attaches to the hyoid bone and opens into the laryngopharynx. Inferiorly it is continuous with the trachea
connects the nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to the larynx and esophagus inferiorly, from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra
only externally visible part of the respiratory system, fashioned by the nasal and frontal bones superiorly
Disorders of the Respiratory System
the mucus clogs the airways and traps germs, like bacteria, leading to infections, inflammation, respiratory failure, and other complications.
Treatments vary but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted drug therapy, and immunotherapy
Symptoms include cough (often with blood), chest pain, wheezing, and weight loss. These symptoms often don't appear until the cancer is advanced.
causes the vocal folds to swell, interfering with their vibration. This changes the vocal tone, causing hoarseness, or in severe cases limiting us to a whisper.
develops rapidly when PO2 is greater than 2.5–3 atm. Excessively high O2 concentrations generate huge amounts of harmful free radicals, resulting in profound CNS disturbances, coma, and death.
blood is given an inadequate amount of oxygen
inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It causes a cough that often brings up mucus. It can also cause shortness of breath, wheezing, a low fever, and chest tightness.
a long-term lung disease that refers to both chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD symptoms include persistent cough with mucus and shortness of breath
chronic lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways. Asthma causes recurring periods of wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe), chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing.
swollen sinuses, can block the sinuses and cause pain.
The Left and Right Bronchi and their Differences
has three lobar (secondary) bronchi
The right main bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left.
has two lobar secondary bronchi
Lung Capacity and Terminology
Total Lung Capacity
is the sum of all lung volumes.
the total amount of exchangeable air. It is the sum of TV, IRV, and ERV.
Functional Residual Capacity
represents the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration and is the combined RV and ERV.
is the total amount of air that can be inspired after a normal tidal volume expiration, so it is the sum of TV and IRV.
The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood returned from the systemic circulation to the lungs, where gas exchange occurs. The pulmonary veins return newly oxygenated (and most bronchial venous) blood back to the heart to be distributed throughout the body. The bronchial arteries provide the nutrient blood supply of the lungs.
The nose provides an airway for respiration; warms, moistens, and cleanses incoming air; and houses the olfactory receptors
Internal and External Respiration
Internal Respiration (pulmonary ventilation)
O2 moves rapidly from blood into tissues until equilibrium is reached. At the same time, CO2 moves quickly along its pressure gradient into blood. As a result, venous blood draining the tissue capillary beds and returning to the heart has a PO2 of 40 mm Hg and a PCO2 of 45 mm Hg.
involves capillary gas exchange in body tissues;
External Respiration (pulmonary gas exchange)
Influences of Expiration:
Partial pressure gradients and gas solubilities
Thickness and surface area of the respiratory membrane
Ventilation-perfusion coupling (matching alveolar ventilation with pulmonary blood perfusion
ark red blood flowing through the pulmonary circuit is transformed into the scarlet river that is returned to the heart for distribution by systemic arteries to all body tissues.
Anatomy of Respiratory Tract
Upper Respiratory Tract
Lower Respiratory Tract
flaps that prevent food from entering
produce sound w/ friction
cartilage w/ c-shape rings
divides in to left and right bronchi and bronchioles