Respiratory System Kayla Cortez Period 1 (Disorders of the Respiratory…
Respiratory System Kayla Cortez Period 1
Gas exchange between alveoli and blood capillaries.
Differences Between the Right and Left Bronchi
The right consists of 2 bronchi, while the left only consists of 1.
The right bronchi is heavier than the left.
Left bronchi is more narrow and long
Right Bronchi is wider and shorter than the left
Disorders of the Respiratory System
Most common lethal genetic disease. Abnormally viscous mucus clogs the respiratory passages, providing a breeding ground for airborne bacteria.
Infected and Swollen Adenoids
Blocks air passage in the nasopharynx making it necessary to breathe through the mouth. Resulting in air not becoming moistened, warmed or filtered before entering the lungs.
Bacteria infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis caused by weakened immune system or drug and alcohol abuse.
Inflammation of vocal folds, Laryngitis
Causing vocal folds to swell interfering with their vibration. Results in changes in vocal tone and in severe cases limit speaking to a whisper.
Bacterial or viral infection of the lungs. Caused by viral infection, aspiration, and bacterial infection.
Life threatening, Caused when the trachea is closed off. Many people have suffocated after choking on a piece of food.
Viral infection, symptoms include dry cough, fatigue, chills, and a fever.
Uncontrolled cell growth and development of tumors in the lungs. Can be caused by smoking, second hand smoke and genetics.
drastically reduce the alveolar surface area.
Caused by chronically inflamed hypersensitive bronchial passages caused by allergens.
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Common in premature babies. Treated by spraying natural or synthetic surfactant into newborn's respiratory passageways.
Inflammation of the pleurae, often results from pneumonia. Gives a stabbing pain between each breath.
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Unique type of hypoxemic hypoxia a leading cause of death from a fire.
Collapsed lung, occurs when bronchiole becomes plugged.
Inadequate oxygen delivery to tissues. More visible in fair-skinned people.
Streptococcal bacteria and other allergens cause rhinitis which causes inflammation of the nasal mucosa as well as excess mucus production.
Anatomy of the Respiratory Tract
Organs of the Respiratory System and Location
Lower Respiratory Tract
Surrounded by fine elastic fibers of the same type that surround the entire bronchial tree.
Flexible tube running from larynx and dividing inferiorly into two main bronchi. Walls contain C-shaped cartilages that are incomplete posteriorly where connected by trachealis
Air passageways in the lungs branch and branch again about 23 times overall which creates the bronchial tree pattern. Tips at the bronchial tree conduct zone structures and give way to respiratory zone structures.
Surrounded by pleurae and connected in the mediastinum by vascular and bronchial attachments called the lung root. The anterior, lateral, and posterior lung surfaces lie in close contact with the ribs.
(Voice box) extends for about 5cm from the level of the third to the sixth cervicle vertibra. superiorly attaches to the hyoid bone and opens into the laryngopharynx, Inferiorly is continued with the trachea.
Upper Respiratory Tract
Connects the nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to the larynx and esophagus inferiorly. Commonly called the throat. Divided into three regions, Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, and Laryngopharynx.
Air siltered spaces within the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones of the skull. Sinuses reduce weight of skull and serve as resonate chambers to affect the quality of the voice.
Lies in and posterior to the external nose. Nasal Cavity is divided by a midline Nasal Septum. Is also continuous posteriorly with the nasalportion of the pharynx through posterior nasal apetures.
The skeletal framework of the external nose is fashioned by the nasal and frontal bones superiorly, the maxillary bones laterally, and flexible plates of hyaline cartilage
Major Functions of the Respiratory System
Distribution of air- warms, humidifies, and filters air.
Gas exchange- supplies oxygen and removes CO2.
Helps maintain homeostasis
Definitions of Lung Capacity Terminology
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inspiration.
Dead Space Volume
Air remaining in the bronchial tree that is not involved in gas exchange.
Tidal Volume (TV)
Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions
Residual Volume (RV)
Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced expiration.
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume expiration
Gas exchange between blood capillaries and body cells.
Differences Between the Right and Left Lung
Right lung has 3 lobes, left only has 2.
Right lung is bigger due to the heart not being positioned on it.
Left lung is smaller due to the heart being positioned on it .
The left lung is the smaller lung
Breathing Mechanism (Physiology)
Inspiratory muscles relax (diaphragm rises; rib cage descends due to recoil of costal cartilages.
Air (gases) flows out of lungs until intrapulmonary pressure is 0.
Thoracic cavity volume decreases
Intrapulmonary pressure rises to +1 mm Hg
Elastic lung recoil passively; intrapulmonary volume decreases
Inspiratory muscles contract (diaphragm descends, rib cage rises)
Air (gases) flows into lungs down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is 0 (equal to atmospheric pressure)
Thoracic cavity volume increases
Intrapulmonary pressure drops to 1mm Hg
Lungs are stretched; intrapulmonary volume increases.
Sequence of Events
Sequence of events