Respiratory System Kayla Cortez Period 1 (Disorders of the Respiratory…
Respiratory System Kayla Cortez Period 1
Breathing Mechanism (Physiology)
Lungs are stretched; intrapulmonary volume increases.
Intrapulmonary pressure drops to 1mm Hg
Thoracic cavity volume increases
Air (gases) flows into lungs down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is 0 (equal to atmospheric pressure)
Inspiratory muscles contract (diaphragm descends, rib cage rises)
Elastic lung recoil passively; intrapulmonary volume decreases
Intrapulmonary pressure rises to +1 mm Hg
Thoracic cavity volume decreases
Air (gases) flows out of lungs until intrapulmonary pressure is 0.
Inspiratory muscles relax (diaphragm rises; rib cage descends due to recoil of costal cartilages.
Differences Between the Right and Left Lung
The left lung is the smaller lung
Left lung is smaller due to the heart being positioned on it .
Right lung is bigger due to the heart not being positioned on it.
Right lung has 3 lobes, left only has 2.
Gas exchange between blood capillaries and body cells.
Definitions of Lung Capacity Terminology
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume expiration
Residual Volume (RV)
Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced expiration.
Tidal Volume (TV)
Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions
Dead Space Volume
Air remaining in the bronchial tree that is not involved in gas exchange.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inspiration.
Major Functions of the Respiratory System
Distribution of air- warms, humidifies, and filters air.
Gas exchange- supplies oxygen and removes CO2.
Helps maintain homeostasis
Organs of the Respiratory System and Location
Upper Respiratory Tract
The skeletal framework of the external nose is fashioned by the nasal and frontal bones superiorly, the maxillary bones laterally, and flexible plates of hyaline cartilage
Lies in and posterior to the external nose. Nasal Cavity is divided by a midline Nasal Septum. Is also continuous posteriorly with the nasalportion of the pharynx through posterior nasal apetures.
Air siltered spaces within the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones of the skull. Sinuses reduce weight of skull and serve as resonate chambers to affect the quality of the voice.
Connects the nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to the larynx and esophagus inferiorly. Commonly called the throat. Divided into three regions, Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, and Laryngopharynx.
Lower Respiratory Tract
(Voice box) extends for about 5cm from the level of the third to the sixth cervicle vertibra. superiorly attaches to the hyoid bone and opens into the laryngopharynx, Inferiorly is continued with the trachea.
Surrounded by pleurae and connected in the mediastinum by vascular and bronchial attachments called the lung root. The anterior, lateral, and posterior lung surfaces lie in close contact with the ribs.
Air passageways in the lungs branch and branch again about 23 times overall which creates the bronchial tree pattern. Tips at the bronchial tree conduct zone structures and give way to respiratory zone structures.
Flexible tube running from larynx and dividing inferiorly into two main bronchi. Walls contain C-shaped cartilages that are incomplete posteriorly where connected by trachealis
Surrounded by fine elastic fibers of the same type that surround the entire bronchial tree.
Anatomy of the Respiratory Tract
Disorders of the Respiratory System
Streptococcal bacteria and other allergens cause rhinitis which causes inflammation of the nasal mucosa as well as excess mucus production.
Inadequate oxygen delivery to tissues. More visible in fair-skinned people.
Collapsed lung, occurs when bronchiole becomes plugged.
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Unique type of hypoxemic hypoxia a leading cause of death from a fire.
Inflammation of the pleurae, often results from pneumonia. Gives a stabbing pain between each breath.
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Common in premature babies. Treated by spraying natural or synthetic surfactant into newborn's respiratory passageways.
Caused by chronically inflamed hypersensitive bronchial passages caused by allergens.
drastically reduce the alveolar surface area.
Uncontrolled cell growth and development of tumors in the lungs. Can be caused by smoking, second hand smoke and genetics.
Viral infection, symptoms include dry cough, fatigue, chills, and a fever.
Life threatening, Caused when the trachea is closed off. Many people have suffocated after choking on a piece of food.
Bacterial or viral infection of the lungs. Caused by viral infection, aspiration, and bacterial infection.
Inflammation of vocal folds, Laryngitis
Causing vocal folds to swell interfering with their vibration. Results in changes in vocal tone and in severe cases limit speaking to a whisper.
Bacteria infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis caused by weakened immune system or drug and alcohol abuse.
Infected and Swollen Adenoids
Blocks air passage in the nasopharynx making it necessary to breathe through the mouth. Resulting in air not becoming moistened, warmed or filtered before entering the lungs.
Most common lethal genetic disease. Abnormally viscous mucus clogs the respiratory passages, providing a breeding ground for airborne bacteria.
Differences Between the Right and Left Bronchi
Right Bronchi is wider and shorter than the left
Left bronchi is more narrow and long
The right bronchi is heavier than the left.
The right consists of 2 bronchi, while the left only consists of 1.
Gas exchange between alveoli and blood capillaries.
Sequence of Events
Sequence of events