Respiratory System, Melissa Benitez, Period 1 (Major functions of the …
Respiratory System, Melissa Benitez, Period 1
breathing mechanism (physiology);
The alveolar and intrapleural pressures are dependent on certain physical features of the lung. Pulmonary ventilation is the act of breathing, which can be described as the movement of air into and out of the lungs. The major mechanisms that drive pulmonary ventilation are atmospheric pressure (Patm); the air pressure within the alveoli, called alveolar pressure (Palv); and the pressure within the pleural cavity, called intrapleural pressure (Pip).
differences between the right and left lung and right and left
Left bronchus:narrower, larger, and not as straight
Right bronchus:wider, shorter, and straighter
internal and external respiration;
internal respiration occurs in the metabolizing tissues, where oxygen diffuses out of the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the cells
External respiration occurs in the lungs where oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveolar air.
Major functions of the
external respiration:gas exchange between air sacs and blood,requires moist membrane for diffusion, must be 750 square feet or 1/3 of tennis court
Transport of Respiratory gases
Pulmonary Ventilation (breathing):breathing,no diffusion air in and out of lungs
to supple body's cells with O2 so that glucose can be metabolized to release large amounts of ATP
-to get rid of CO2, a waste product of metabolism (following are used in process)
anatomy of the respiratory tract;
upper respiratory tract:composed of nose, the pharynx, and the larynx, organs located outside the chest cavity.
sinuses:air filled spaces along side of nose help make skull lighter
pharynx:food and air pass through the pharynx before reaching their appropriate destinations, it plays a role in speech.
nasal cavity:inside nose, sticky mucous membrane lining nasal cavity traps dust particles , and tiny hairs called cilia move them to nose to be sneezed or blown out.
larynx:essential to human speech
organs of the respiratory system and location
(upper and lower respiratory track);
Pharynx (throat);Located behind the oral cavity & between the nasal cavities & the larynx
Larynx (voicebox):Prevents food & other foreign objects from entering the breathing structures (trachea)
Epiglottis:Acts as a flap; covers the opening of the trachea during eating so food does not enter the lungs
-Consists of organs located in the chest cavity: the lower trachea, brochi, brochioles, alveoli, and lungs
definitions of lung capacity terminology;
Total lung capacity: The total amount of gas in the lungs after a maximum inspiration
Functional residual capacity: The amount of gas remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal expiration
Inspiratory capacity:The maximum amount of gas that can be inspired after a normal tidal expiration
Vital capacity:The maximum amount of gas that can be expired after a maximum inspiration
disorders of the respiratory system.
Chest Trauma : Chest trauma can result in a puncture or tear in lung tissue, however. Air escapes from the tear and builds up between the lung and the chest wall. The air pressure pushes on the outside of the lung until it collapses. A complete lung collapse is called pneumothorax.
Influenza: commonly called “the flu,” is a contagious disease: An influenza virus can pass through the air from one person to another.
Sinusitis: paranasal sinuses are hollow, air-filled spaces in skull bones around the nasal cavities. Mucous membranes line the sinuses.
Asthma: a chronic disorder involving soreness and swelling of the interior airway walls. It can be triggered by the inhalation of particles from the air.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):a chronic respiratory disorder caused by long-term exposure to substances that irritate and damage the lungs. These substances include cigarette smoke and other inhaled pollutants. The two main types of COPD are chronic bronchitis and emphysema. In chronic bronchitis, inflamed airways constrict and generate excess mucus, making it hard to breathe