Cardiovascular System Kayla Cortez Period1 (Anatomy of the Heart…
Cardiovascular System Kayla Cortez Period1
Anatomy of the Heart (including ill chambers and valves)
valve between the right atrium an the right ventricle
Bicuspid or Mitral Valve
valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
Left and Right Ventricle (2)
thick muscular pumping chambers
comes before the lungs
Left and Right Atria (2)
thin walled collecting chamber
comes before the aorta
the largest vein in the body, it carries blood from the body back to the heart
carry blood towards the heart
carry blood away from the heart
supply the heart muscle with its blood supply
takes oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
Disorders fo the Cardiovascular system
irregular heart rhythm, may cause uncoordinated atrial and ventricular contractions, or even fibrillation.
blood flow is turbulent and generates abnormal heart sounds. usually occurs because heart walls are thin and vibrate with rushing blood.
thoracic pain caused by fleeting deficiency in blood delivery to myocardium
Abnormally fast resting heart rate (100beats/min)
"incompetent" or "insufficient" Valve
forces the heart to repump the same blood over and over because valve does not close properly and blood backflows.
slow resting heart rate (60beats/min)
roughens the serous membrane surfaces, overtime can lead to adhesions. When the beating heart rubs against the pericardial sac.
Cause a failure of blood clotting. can be treated with blood transfusions that include clotting agents.
Low production of platelets and causes bleeding or bruising
An infection enters the bloodstream and can be deadly. Only treated with antibiotics.
Increase in one type of white blood cells (lymphocytes) in the bloodstream
Cancer of the blood, overproduction od WBC's and they take place of RBC's
Iron deficiency anemia is low iron which is most common. Can be treated with iron supplements.
Layers of the heart
Cardiac Muscle, the layer that contracts
Simple squamous epithelium, continuous with blood vessels
Thin layer of Connective Tissue
Major Functions of the Cardiovascular System
Preventing blood loss by the forming of clots, preventing infection, antibodies, WBC's, and complement proteins
Maintaining body temperature, Ph, and fluid volume
02 and nutrielnt to body cells: removing metabolic wastes to lungs and kidneys: transporting hormones to target.
Major arteries and veins
Drains deoxiginated blood from the liver into the inferior vena cava.
Blood vessels that supply blood carrying oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium of the heart.
Supplies blood to the heart and face.
Vein that carries blood from the lungs to the heart. Only Vein that carries oxygenated blood.
Inferior Vena Cava
Carries blood from the lower limbs of the body and empties in the right atrium.
Carries blood from the right ventricles to the lungs and only artery that carries deoxygenated blood.
Refers to the circulation that carries oxygen poor blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
Artery or vein that services the right arm, head, and shoulders.
Great Saphenous Vein
The longest vein in the body,sometimes used in bypass surgery.
Internal Carotid Artery
Artery that supplies blood to the brain.
Recieves deoxiginated blood from the body via the superior and inferior vena cava.
Cardiac Cycle and the ECG
Heartbeat is regular and rythmic and average is about 72 beats per min.
Each cycle is about 0.8 seconds long, is subdivided into systole (contraction phase) and diastole (relaxation phase)
specialize conduction system structures generate and transmit the electrical impulses that result in contraction of the heart
These tiny impulses can be picked up on the surface of the body and transformed into visible tracings by a machine called an electrocardiograph
The visible tracing of these electric signals -
Blood flow through the heart and body
The right ventricle and atrium sends blood to the lungs
Eliminates CO2 and oxygenates blood (lung pathway)
The left ventricle and atrium send blood to the body or system
Delivers blood tyo all body cells and carries away waste
Structural differences between Blood Vessel types
Arteries- usually carry blood away from the hearty and are a thick layer
Arterioles- are small arteries found between arteries and capillaries
Capillaries- smallest of blood vessels and sites of gas exchange between blood and tissue cells. Also connect arterioles and venules.
Venules- in all veins
Veins- usually return blood toward heart and are a thinner muscle layer than arteries.