Kukathas and Pettit (1990) Rawls ( Two principles of justice (“lexically…
Kukathas and Pettit (1990) Rawls
what moral principles should govern the basic structure of a just society.
Theory of justice: conception of justice as fairness
reconciles and integrates freedom and equality into a coherent unity
Strategy of choice
how should they go about deciding which principles of justice are appropriate?
heuristic device' to regard the two principles 'as the maximin solution to the problem of social justice' under uncertainty
maximin strategy tells us to rank alternatives by their worst possible outcomes, adopting the alternative whose worst outcome is superior to the worst outcome of any other.
Two principles of justice
ensuring that social and economic inequalities are arranged to offer the greatest possible benefit to the worst-off in society, while upholding fair equality of opportunity.
Second principle Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both:
(a) to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged, consistent with the just savings principle, and
(b) attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity.
“fair equality of opportunity”
the first guaranteeing fundamental individual liberties (of speech, association and worship, among others),
First principle: Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all.
'priority of liberty'
priority of justice over efficiency and welfare.
First principle (liberty) takes precendence over the second. Part b (fair equality of opportunities) of the second takes precedence over part a (difference).
“original position” hypothetical position in the parties select principles about how to design the rules governing the distribution of goods and burdens in a societey in a position of equals behind a “veil of ignorance”.
Veil of ignorance: This means that they do not know, for instance, which skills, wealth, gender, race, intelligence, social stand, etc they will have.