Biochemistry (Vitamins (Nutrients: molecules needed by organisms to…
Nutrients: molecules needed by organisms to maintain health.
Micronutrients: nutrients needed in extremely small amounts, generally less than 0.005% of body mass, usually measured in mg or ug per day.
Deficiency diseases: the severe consequences of absence of micronutrients
Micronutrients include the vitamins and trace minerals such as: Fe, Cu, Zn, I, Se, Mn, Mo, Cr, Co and B
Vitamin A: an antioxidant and needed for healthy eyesight, it is related to carotene and found in yellow fruits and vegetables. Fortification with margarine and rice.
Vitamin B: water soluble, commonly found in unprocessed food such as whole grains. Their deficiency causes a range of diseases including beriberi, forms of anaemia, and mental disorders. Fortification with cereals
Vitamin C: vitamin C deficiency is characterized by lower resistance to infection and can develop into scurvy. Best prevented by a diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables.
Vitamin D: made by the action of sunlight on the skin and is important for healthy bones
Amino acid: an amino group (-NH2) and an acid group (-COOH) bonded to the same carbon atom
Primary, secondary tertiary and quaternary structure of a protein
Binding, Complexing, Reaction, Detaching
denaturation, digestion, deactivation
Anabolism: the part of metabolism concerned with building up or synthesis
Catabolism: metabolic reactions of breakdown or degradation
Metabolism: the sum of all chemical reactions taking place in an organism
hydrolysis reactions: the breakdown of chemical bonds by the addition of water
Condensation polymers: synthesis involves the loss of a small molecule (water) for each covalent bond that forms between two monomers.
Photosynthesis: green plants capture solar energy and use it to synthesize energy rich biomolecules. It converts light energy into chemical energy
Respiration: the process of chemical breakdown of energy-rich molecules in cells with the release of energy. It takes place in all living cells all the time
Cell: the development of a membrane that enclosed and defined a volume of space