Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration (Thylakoid- lies in the…
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
Oxygen- oxygen is released as a big part in the respiration process to break down molecules and releases necessary energy in the form of ATP.
NADP- Transfers electrons of high energy to other molecules to build high energy compounds.
When NADP is reduced, it creates NADPH which reduces carbon dioxide to a carbohydrate.
Solar Energy- Solar energy is turned into chemical energy by taking elections and protons from water
ATP- common energy currency of cells
Carbon Dioxide- CO2 is taken from the air and is transformed into sugars and other compounds that eventually turn into oxygen.
Calvin Cycle- chemical reactions in this cycle again use sunlight to produce ATP and NADPH. Secondly, water and carbon dioxide are converted to some organic molecules like glucose for example.
Water- divides into oxygen, hydrogen ions, and electrons to replace those lost in Photosystem II.
Chloroplasts- work to convert energy from the sunlight to sugars that cells use which leads to the process of photosynthesis.
Thylakoid- lies in the chloroplast, is a system of membranes responsible for carrying out light reactions.
Light Reactions- occur when sunlight is absorbed and energy makes electrons move from water to make NADPH which eventually transports protons to make ATP.
NADPH- generated from the light reactions and is used in the Calvin Cycle to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide released.
Photosystem 2 begins when the thylakoid absorbs the photons. This system removes electrons and passes them over to the electron transport chain (ETC).
Electron transport chain pumps H+ from the stroma into the thylakoid space while moving electrons to a lower energy level
Photosystem 1 uses the electrons that are lost in Photosystem 2 with NADP+ forming NADPH
After the ETC, the ATP synthase pump forms ATP
stroma- Necessary Enzymes for Photosynthesis lie in the Stroma. The stroma is also involved in synthesizing molecules like Water, Carbon Dioxide, and more.
Cellular respiration will oxidize the glucose molecule, and the overall goal is to make ATP, storage form of energy for most cells
CR begins with glycolysis, which means splitting sugars
During glycolysis, a net of 2 ATP, 2 pyruvate molecules, and 2 high-energy NADH molecules are produced
If oxygen is present, the NADH and pyruvate enter the mitochondria, where cellular respiration occurs and where carbs are oxidized and use released energy to build ATP
At the end of the citric acid cycle, the step after glycolysis, a net of 8 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP are produced for each glucose molecule
In the ETC, electrons are transferred between mitochondrial membrane proteins and used to make ATP
Hydrogen ions flow across the membrane and fuels the ATP synthase pump which makes approx. 32 to 36 ATP.
Oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor and water is produced in the process
All electrons were produced in the matrix
When FADH2 is oxidized, it forms FAD. FAD and NAD+ alike, temporarily store energy as it is released from glucose.
Photosynthesis converts solar energy into chemical energy of a carbohydrate. Water and carbon dioxide are materials needed for this process.