External Factors - Ethnicity & Educational Achievement (Statistics…
External Factors - Ethnicity & Educational Achievement
National Pupil Database 2013 - Lowest performing ethnic groups are Black Caribbean & Gypsy / Roma children.
Amongst Asians, Indians do better than Pakistanis & Bangladeshis.
National Pupil Database 2013 - More Chinese & Indian pupils achieving 5 A* - C GCSE's than other ethnic groups.
White & Asian Pupils on average achieve higher than Black Pupils.
Hastings 2006 - White Pupils male less progress between ages of 11-16 compared to Black / Asian Pupils, if current trends continue then White Pupils will become lowest performing ethnic group in UK.
DFE's 2007 - Within every ethnic group M/C Pupils do better than /C Pupils & Among all groups other than Gypsy / Roma children, girls out perform boys.
Racism in society
Noon 1993 - Sent identical letters to 100 top UK companies but alternated between names 'Evans' & 'Patel', the replies to the 'White' candidate were more helpful & informative.
Rex 1986: Racism = social exclusion & poverty.Shown in housing, employment & education, racism = discrimination both inside & outside the classroom.
Mason 1995: 'Discrimination is a continuing & persistent feature of the experience of Britain's citizens of minority ethnic origin.'
Keddie 1971: Blame culture is to blame the victims of educational failure.
Driver 1977: Ethnicity can be an advantage in education e.g. African Caribbean girls do well in school.
Ignores Compensatory Education e.g Sure start (2000) & Education Action Zones (1990's).
Relies on generalisations.
3) Family structure & Parental support
Lupton 2004: 'Adult Authoritarian' = Asian family matches that of the school.
Driver & Ballard 1981: Asian families = 'pro-school' attitude than B families, Asian families rarely lone parent families they offer bigger support network for children.
Pryce 1979: Asian culture = more cohesive than B culture & are able to ignore racism more effectively (not affected by it as much e.g. low self-esteem = educational failure).
Impact of slavery = B culture lost its language, religion, ancestry etc. B culture less likely to integrate & assimilate with W M/C - Hall 1992 calls this 'Cultural of Resistance'.
Scruton 1986: Low achievement = ethnic minorities failing to embrace & conform to British culture.
Murray 1984: African Caribbean Lone- Parenthood to blame, lack of Male role models = mothers struggle to socialise children.
'Dysfunctional' family types are to blame for the underachievement of certain ethnic groups. (Some sociologists claim).
2) Attitudes & Values
Arnot 2004: Media have created a negative anti-school role model for B pupils in particular he describes as ' The Ultra-Tough Ghetto Superstar' reinforced through rap lyrics & MTV videos.
Gillborn & Youdell 2001: Teachers perceived W/C & B pupils = lower ability even if they were achieving.
1) Intellectual & Linguistic Skills
Bernstein 1975: 'Socio-Linguistics'.
Bowker 1968: 'The Education of coloured Immigrants.'Lack of standard English creates a huge barrier to UK education.
Swann Report 1985: Language differences had little impact on achievement.
'Many W/C & B children are inadequately socialised & lack the 'right' culture needed for educational success.'
'Lack of basic necessities such as adequate diet, housing, clothing or money to buy these things (poverty).'
Swann Report 1985: Social class differences account for a high proportion of differences in achievement between ethnic groups.
Pakistanis & Bangladeshis 3X more likely than Whites to be in poorest 1/5 of the population.
Africans, Pakistanis & Bangladeshis 3X more likely to be unemployed than Whites.
15% minority groups = overcrowded homes (2% for Whites).
Pakistanis 2X more likely = semi/un-skilled jobs compared to Whites.