ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE (Definition.= A system of shared meaning held by…
.= A system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations.
Attention to detail.
The degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis, and attention to detail.
= The degree to which management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve them.
. The degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization.
= The degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals.
The degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than easygoing.
Innovation and risk taking.
The degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks.
The degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth.
= A culture that expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization’s members.
= The primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization.
= Mini-cultures within an organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation
= A culture in which the core values are intensely held and widely shared.
= The shared perceptions organizational members have about their organization and work environment.
Ethical work climate (EWC)
= The shared concept of right and wrong behavior in the workplace that reflects the true values of the organization and shapes the ethical decision making of its members.
= Organization practices that can be sustained over a long period of time because the tools or structures that support them are not damaged by the processes.
= A condition that occurs when an organization takes on a life of its own, apart from any of its members, and acquires immortality
= A process that adapts employees to the organization’s culture
= The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge.
= The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee changes and adjusts to the job, work group, and organization.
= The period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joins the organization.
How to learn Culture?
= typically include narratives about the organization’s founders, rule breaking, rags-to riches successes, workforce reductions, relocation of employees,, reactions to past mistakes, and organizational coping.
= Repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the key values of the organization, which goals are most important, which people are important, and which are expendable.
= What conveys to employees who is important, the degree of egalitarianism top management desires, and the kinds of behavior that are appropriate.
Create Ethical Culture
Be a visible role model
.= Employees will look to the actions of top management as a benchmark for appropriate behavior, but everyone can be a role model to positively influence the ethical atmosphere. Send a positive message.
Communicate ethical expectations
= Whenever you serve in a leadership capacity, minimize ethical ambiguities by sharing a code of ethics that states the organization’s primary values and the judgment rules employees must follow.
Provide ethical training.
= Set up seminars, workshops, and training programs to reinforce the organization’s standards of conduct, clarify what practices are permissible, and address potential ethical dilemmas.
Visibly reward ethical acts
= and punish unethical ones. Evaluate subordinates on how their decisions measure up against the organization’s code of ethics. Review the means as well as the ends. Visibly reward those who act ethically and conspicuously punish those who don’t.
Provide protective mechanisms.
Seek formal mechanisms so everyone can discuss ethical dilemmas and report unethical behavior without fear of reprimand. These might include identifying ethical counselors, ombudspeople, or ethical officers for liaison roles.
Positive organizational culture
= A culture that emphasizes building on employee strengths, rewards more than punishes, and emphasizes individual vitality and growth.
Building on Employee Strengths
Rewarding more than Punishing
encouraging Vitality and Growth
Limits of Positive culture
= The recognition that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of community.
= Spiritual organizations value kindness toward others and the happiness of employees and other organizational stakeholders.
Strong sense of purpose.
Spiritual organizations build their cultures around a meaningful purpose. Although profits may be important, they’re not the primary value
Trust and respect
. Spiritual organizations are characterized by mutual trust, honesty, and openness. Employees are treated with esteem and value, consistent with the dignity of each individual.
Spiritual organizations value flexible thinking and creativity among employees.