Cardiovascular System period 5. Ramos Carmen (disorders of the…
Cardiovascular System period 5. Ramos Carmen
blood flow through the heart and body
Right atrium and ventricle sends blood to lungs (pulmonary circulation)
It eliminates Carbon dioxide and oxygenates blood. Left atrium and ventricle sends blood to body or system. (systemic circulation It delivers blood to all body cells and carries away waste. )
Major functions of the cardiovascular system
Transports oxygen and nutrients to body cells. Removes metabolic wastes and to the lungs and kidneys. Regulates and maintains body temp and pH fluid volume Protects by preventing blood loss ( clot formation) Prevents infection using antibodies and more.
Layers of the heart
Epicardium - Thin layer of CT/ Myocardium - cardiac muscle, layer that contracts/ Endocardium- simple squamous epithelium/continues with blood vessels.
Anatomy of the heart (with all chambers and valves)
4 Chambers of Heart: 2 Atria (Left and right) thin walled collecting chambers/ 2 ventricles (left and right) thick and muscular pumping chambers. Left and right sides separated by interventricular septum.
4 Valves of Heart: Blood flows in just one direction. / Atrioventricular (AV) valves is right after atria. The right is the tricuspid valve, left is bicuspid or mitral valve./ Semilunar valves = after ventricles. Pulmonary comes before lungs and aortic is before the aorta.
Major arteries and veins of the body
Arteries: carries blood away from heart.
Arterioles: "small arteries"
Capillaries: smallest of blood vessels. Has gas exchange between blood and tissue cells.
Veins: usually return blood towards the heart.
Venules: "small veins". Connects capillaries and veins.
structural and functional differences between blood vessel types
Arterioles - walls get thinner as they approach the capillaries. Found between arteries and capillaries/ Arteries: strong and elastic. Adapted to carry high pressure blood. Becomes smaller so they divide and rise to arterioles./ Capillaries: smallest of blood vessels. Only one layer of endothelium where exchange of materials. Connects arterioles and venules./ Venules: "small veins" that connects capillaries and veins. / Veins: Thinner muslce layer than arteries. Have flap-like valve to prevent backflow of blood.
Cardiac cycle and ECG
Cardiac cycle: 72 beats per min. Each cycle 0.8 sec long, subdivided into systole (contraction phase) and diastole (relaxation phase)
Stroke volume: volume of blood ejected from one ventricle w/ each beat.
Cardiac output: amount of blood that one ventricle can pump each minute; average is about 5L per min at rest.
ECG(electrocardiogram): visible tracing of electrical signals. / 3 deflections or waves: [p wave, QRS complex, and T wave]
P wave: associated with depolarization of atria.
QRS complex: depolarization of ventricles
T wave: repolarization of ventricles.
disorders of the cardiovascular system
Carbon monoxide poisoning- Prevents oxygen from binding. It can be fatal.
Anemia- low iron. When the bone marrow doesn't produce enough RBC./ Hemorrhagic anemia (extreme blood loss) Pernicious anemia = BR deficiency
Sickle cell anemia: genetic disorder/ abnormally shaped blood cells. Creates pain, lifelong anemia (low blood count), organ failure/stroke.
Leukemia: cancer of blood. overproduction of WBCs.
Monoucleosis- increase in one type of white blood cells in bloodstream.
Blood poisoning (septicemia) - infection that enters the bloodstream.
Thrombocytopenia - low prod. of platelets. Causes bleeding or bruising.
Hemophilia - disorder that causes blood failure to clot.