The cardiovascular system (disorders of the cardiovascular system …
The cardiovascular system
major functions of the cardiovascular system
deliver oxygen and nutrients
remove carbon dioxide and waste products
function of the valves
close to prevent back flow
blood flow in one one direction
anatomy of the heart (including all chambers and valves)
Heart Chambers include:
Ventricles - discharging chambers
right ventricle- discharged blood to lung
left ventricle- discharged blood to the rest of the body
interventricular septum- wall seperating 2 ventricles
Atria -receiving chambers
right atrium- received blood from rest of the body
Left atrium- received blood from lung
Major vessels of heart
Aorta- leave left ventricle to rest of the body
pulmonary trunk- leave right ventricle to lungs branch into pulmonary arteries
semilunar valves (between ventricular and artery)
aortic semilunar valves- between leftventricle and aorta
pulmonary semilunar valve- between right ventricle and pulmonary valve
VALVES OPEN A BLOOD IS PUMPED
Atriventricular valves (between atria and ventricles)
tricuspid valve (right)
bicuspid(mitral) valve (left)
HELD IN PLACE CHORDAE TENDINAE ("heart strings)- ANCHORS VALVES TO VENTRICULAR WALL
layers of the heart
right and left buncle branches subendocardial conductinf network
Subendocardial conucting network
blood flow through the heart and body
Blood enters the heart through two large veins, the inferior and superior vena cava, emptying oxygen-poor blood from the body into the right atrium of the heart
As the ventricle contracts, blood leaves the heart through the pulmonic valve, into the pulmonary artery and to the lungs where it is oxygenated.
Blood returns to the heart from the body via two large blood vessels called the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava. This blood carries little oxygen, as it is returning from the body where oxygen is used
blood leaves the heart through the pulmonic valve, into the pulmonary artery and to the lungs where it is oxygenated.
major arteries and veins of the body
The aorta (the main blood supplier to the body) branches off into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries)
The right coronary artery supplies blood mainly to the right side of the heart.
These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the entire heart muscle.
The superior vena cava and inferior vena cava are veins that return deoxygenated blood from circulation in the body and empty it into the right atrium.
structural and functional differences between blood vessel types
Sinetreial (S-A) node
Located at right atrium
Sequential stimulation occurs at other cells
atroventrivular (A-V) node
at junction between atria and ventricles
Internal control of heart rate
heart muscle cells contract without nerve impulses in a regular contiunous way
Atroventricular (AV) bundle
bundle of itus
specialized myocardial muscle fibers that conduct electrical impulse; spread within muscles ventriular wall
cardiac cycle and the ecg
cardiac cycle = events of ONE complete <3 beat
ventricular system- blood pressure builds before ventricle contracts, pushing out blood
mid- to - late diastile
blood flow into ventricles
early diastole - tria finish refilling, ventricular pressure is LOW
disorders of the cardiovascular system
A heart attack usually occurs when a blood clot blocks blood flow to the heart.
Symptoms include tightness or pain in the chest, neck, back, or arms, as well as fatigue, lightheadedness, abnormal heartbeat, and anxiety. Women are more likely to have atypical symptoms than men.
A heart murmur is an unusual sound heard between heartbeats.
Murmurs sometimes sound like a whooshing or swishing noise.
caused by a more serious heart condition, your doctor may recommend treatment for that heart condition.
Angina pectoris is the medical term for chest pain or discomfort due to coronary heart disease.
Angina feels like squeezing, pressure, heaviness, tightness, or pain in the chest.
Angina pectoris is the result of myocardial ischemia caused by an imbalance between myocardial blood supply and oxygen demand
Narrowing of the valve in the large blood vessel branching off the heart (aorta).
Pericarditis refers to inflammation of the pericardium,
two thin layers of a sac-like tissue that surround the heart, hold it in place and help it work
Pericarditis may be caused by a viral infection or heart attack. In many cases,
Pericarditis is swelling and irritation of the pericardium, the thin saclike membrane surrounding your heart
An irregular, often rapid heart rate that commonly causes poor blood flow.