History of Ships (João Gui) (Egyptian (Types of Ships (Warship (Warships…
History of Ships (João Gui)
Developed by various stone age populations around the world
Most notably the indigenous in the Pacific Northwest (USA)
Used for coastal fishing and travel
As long ago as 4000 BC
Egyptian river boats most commonly used one row of oarsmen and in later years, a square sail.
All of Egypt was along the Nile river, surrounded by desert. Water transport was essential.
Papyrus drawing of an Egyptian Oarboat
On the 3rd millenium BC, Egyptians left the Nile and began Sea voyages. Among these journeys were travels to Crete and Phoenicia and trading routes in the eastern African coast. According to historians, around the year 600 BC, a fleet of Egyptian ships left a Red Sea port and returned, more than 2 years later after having nagvigated around Africa.
Types of Ships
Warships needed space for fighting men, speed and agility in water and good manuvering therefore long and narrow ships were adopted by armies.
Also called Cargo ships these needed to have large cargo areas for the goods and ease to navigate because of the small crew. These ships started to take a more rounded shape and high upper deck levels.
Most Norse ships were built with this method which consists of overlapping planks to form the hull. Most clinker-built ships were simmetrical and had similar or identical ends, this means the ship could go forewards and backwards almost instantly.
Carvel-built ships, very common among Mediteranian and Iberic populations had it's hull built of planks put side by side to form a smooth bottom surface. These ships had differing bows and sterns, this requiered the ship to turn completely if it wished to sail the other way around.
Differences between Clinker and Caravel-built hulls.
The first sails to be used were used together with rowers on Egyptian ships
Helped with speed when wind was favourable
So that rowers wouldn't be needed the number of sails in ships had to rise, and so did the number of masts
After 1400 CE ships in the mediterranean replaced simple Lateen sails with Square rigged sails.
A Lateen Sail
A Square rigged sail
Early Sea Navigation
Started around 1200 when a Mediterranean ship crossed the straight of Gibraltar and onto open sea.
Mediterranean ship technology exchanged with Northen European technology by French sailors from Bayonne.
Causing great change in ship construction and navigation styles in France, Spain and Portugal, by the 14th century.
15th Century sailing
Full rigged ships with several Lateen and Square rigged sails and up to three masts.
Sailors such as Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, and Cabot carried out their voyages and expanded the world's trade by sea.
Portugal creates the first ever school specialized in sailing
Larger scale trade requiered larger scale ships, the so called 'full rigged' ships became even larger, holding up to 26 sails
Largest trading nations began to master ship construction and effective designs
Colonies and Trading
Ships provided 15th, 16th and 17th century nations acess to the East
There they could trade with foreign peoples for spices and silk
Colonies were established in Africa and Asia
European trade settlements were built in several cities such as Bombay and Calcutta
The first Steamboats came around during the 19th century and used very heavy engines that produced little power, becoming very slow (only up to 3 to 4 miles per hour)
Moreover, the very large paddles which moved the Steamboat were found to create water turbulence and disrupt the shores of waterways.
An early model of a Steamboat
Iron-hulled ships were already produced largely since the 1860s
Piston-powered and turbine-powered ships were produces though turbine-powerd vessels proved to be faster
Ships were now mostly used for passenger lines and cargo transport
The Atlantic Ferry was a shipping flow, used by most passenger lines, connecting the USA to Europe
The most notable lines to travel the Atlantic Ferry were the Cunard Line and the White Star Line, owner of the RMS Titanic.
Creation of some of history's most know ships
RMS Queen Mary