DIFFERENT TYPES OF LIBERALISM (LATER CLASSICAL LIBERLISM - with changed…
DIFFERENT TYPES OF LIBERALISM
early classical liberalism
Wollstonecraft argument remains that women and men are required formal education to release their innate powers of reason. however in the mid 18th century these were seen as radical ideas by authorities.
Wollstonecraft argued that the treatment of women during this period was general affront to reason to the individual liberty of half of the other gender. Wollstonecraft contested that English society in 18th century could only conceive of women as emotional creatures; for marriage and motherhood.
REVOULTIONARY POTENTIAL - Locke's argument for government by consent and the notion that it should be ran by representatives not masters 'the state is the slave of the people not the master'. the core liberal belief of rationalism - that humanity's prime characteristic was reason and logic - was far from accepted in the 18th century. neither was the idea that society should be geared to maximise individuals potential.
negative liberty - one which saw freedom as the absence of restraint. therefore individuals should see themselves as 'naturally' free until someone puts a break on their actions.
'liberal feminists' such as Wollstonecraft tried to emphasis on the individual liberty of women. yet, early liberals understood that the word liberty was too vague to be understood.
NEGATIVE LIBERTY - Voltaire were conscience that individual liberty - a crucial 'natural right' - was vital to being self - determination and self -reliance as well as the condition of government by consent.
MINIMAL STATE - given that liberty was now seen as the absence of restraint; the answer became obvious governments should not just be limited in terms of how they could act but also terms on how they would do.
Laissez - faire capitalism - negative liberty and minimal state leads to want of capitalism and therefore laissez faire capitalism
LATER CLASSICAL LIBERLISM - with changed environments (urban) classical liberals faced a challenge if their core ideas were to remain relevant. people were growing a class consciences. which therefore were growing interest of socialism and democracy
Jeremy Bentham known as the father of utilitarian philosophy. he based an idea that each individual wants to maximise their 'utility' but increasing their personal pleasure and minimising personal pain.
Bentham recognised that in this new society their could be clashes between individuals than early classical liberals had recognised. to sort this Bentham suggest the state used a new formula 'the greatest happiness for the greatest number' for new legislation from the government. Bentham recognised that government by consent would be the ones to follow this argument.
Samuel Smiles feared that individualism was getting destroyed by the new advent of socialism. with it provision for the state. Smiles acknowledge that industrialised societies made it harder to be self - reliant with employees in the factory industry. however smiles argued in seeking to overcome these new challenges more rigously and therefore become more fully developed.
Herbert Spencer acknowledge to importance of self - help and echoed Smiles contempt for state intervention. however, Spencer questioned Smiles argument that we could rise to the challenge. he feared that the 'feeble' minority would justify this state extension of power. and erosion of individual freedom. Spencer wanted to apply the thought of 'natural selection' that Charles Darwin brought in. Spencer wanted to the minimal state and negative freedom however he used 'survival of the fittest' and gradually eliminating the weak who are unable to enjoy the benefits of the weak.
Mill's took Locke's view of the representative democracy and wanted representative democracy of which the representatives go receive the opinions of majority and minority instead of listening to majority.
Mill was concerned that voters weren't equipped enough to choose intelligent representatives who would act rationally. Mill argued that universal suffrage must come before universal credit to focus on developmental individualism (what people could become rather what they ha become). once education had been made secured Mill argued that would bring democracy and widespread of liberal values, with political education.
POSITIVE LIBERTY/SOCIAL JUSTICE - T.H Green were arguing modern advanced societies made a mockery of the idea that individuals were innately autonomous
ENLARGED AND ENABLING STATE - john Rawls say himself justifying extension in the state for individual liberty; more laws, more state spending, more taxation. people's budget 1908.
having accepted collectivism modern liberalism had accepted the fact that they had gone against one of liberals core values of a minimal state. however Rawls continued to argue that having a large state meant that it could help equality of opportunity. rawls accepted that some individuals would have to accept some of their earnings for taxation. but they could be persuaded that this was a good idea. having an enabling state.
the key difference with socialism was that they didn't focus on equality of outcome. the main aim was to help the least fortunate in the society.
the modern economics and society meant individuals were subject to socio - economic forces beyond their control. then forces would make it almost impossible for people to have self - determination. now they argued social justice and legal justice were required to fulfil their full potential.
Green revised the meaning of liberty they now would view liberalism instead of a merely having freedom; having absence of restraint, less negative it was now positive individuals empowering each other; this would allow individuals to act in a way which they wouldn't if they were left alone. people needed to be enabled to be free of socio economics.
CONSTITIONAL REFORM / LIBERAL DEMOCRACY
Hobhouse observed 'if the state is to be enlarged, it must also be improved'. the liberals wanted reform such as codified or uncodified constitution. they have support for liberal democracy. the link between core liberal values and universal adult suffrage. yet they dont want a direct democracy as they fear 'tyranny of the majority'.
SOCIAL LIBERALISM - update their view on tolerance. social liberalism. they had calls for greater racial and sexual toleration. given they like enlarged state and positive liberty they wanted more legislation put into place for 'positive discrimination'.
NEO - LIBERALISM: LIBERALISM OR CONVERSATISM?
neo liberals showed the third strand of liberal ideology. neo liberals like Adam smith have rejected social policies, associated with conservatism.
neo liberals seek to update the classical liberals views it also critiques modern liberalism as it betrays individualism, and is a sell out to conservatism and socialism. they have called back for a minimal state and negative freedom. 'set the people free'
reduction in public spending-