COMPOUNDS AND NOMENCLATURE (Binary substances (Hidrides: (Metallic…
COMPOUNDS AND NOMENCLATURE
Non-metallic hydrides (groups 16 and 17), a.k.a. binary acids:
Here, hydrogen has an ON of +1, so it goes first.
Composition nomenclature. Hydrogen+element followed by -ide,
ON. Hydrogen always has -1 and the metal positive (because it lends electrons).
Non-metallic hydrides (groups 13, 14 and 15):
Common name. Common names end in -ane, except water (rarely referred to as oxidane).
Metal+non-metal. Remember: metals are groups 1 to 12 and non-metals are groups 13 to 18. Group 18 doesn't combine*.
Non-metal with non-metal without H and O:
Mulltipying prefixes. You write: first element (the one which only has one atom in a molecule)+second element followed by -ide.
Oxides (oxygen+something which isn't group 17):
Multiplying prefixes. Exceptions: if the first element is one, don't add mono-; if the possible quantities of the second element are only one, don't add the prefix.
ON. Exception: if there's just one possible ON, there's no need to add it. The ON is written with roman numbers between parenthesis after the first element.
Charge number. Just as the ON, but with normal numbers, as well as positive or negative signs.
Rules: Metals to the left in the formula. In the case of non-metals, there's a certain order which has to be followed. It's established by the IUPAC and it's usually about the tendency of an element to give or receive electrons (respectively left and right). ON's of the elements that make up the molecule cancel out each other. If it's an ion, the result of summing up the ON's will be the charge of the ion.
The name of the elements followed by the charge number between parenthesis.
If its charge number is positive, it's the same as above, although you may instead call it cation.
If the charge number is negative, then it's called by the name of the element plus -ide. i.e.: oxide. You can also add ion or anion.
Non-metallic atomic substances:
They're called just as the element..
They're called just as the element.
Traditional nomenclature. As it's the natural form of the element, it's called just as the element. In the case of oxygen there's both O2 and O3. So, in this case, O3 is called ozone.
Stoichiometric nomenclature. The prefix for how meny atoms there are in a molecule followed by the name of the element.
Ternary substances (the ones we've been taught about)
*Let's do as if Xenon compounds didn't exist