The Cardiovascular system Sarah Ramirez P.1 (Anatomy of the heart (left…
The Cardiovascular system Sarah Ramirez P.1
Transports nutrients, oxygen needed throughout the body and removes metabloic wastes
Protects the body from any foreign activity
Regulation of body temperature, fluid pH, and water content of cells.
Anatomy of the heart
Superior Vena cava
right and left pulmonary veins
inferior vena cava
Layers of the Heart
Myocardium- the muscular tissue of the heart.
Endocardium- the thin, smooth membrane which lines the inside of the chambers of the heart and forms the surface of the valves.
Epicardium/pericardium - serous membrane that forms the innermost layer of the pericardium and the outer surface of the heart.
Blood Flow through heart and body
of the heart is the
pulmonary circuit pump
, and it pumps blood through the lungs, where the blood picks up oxygen and dumps carbon dioxide
of the heart is the
Systemic circuit pump
, it pumps blood through the body's tissues. supplying them with oxygen and nutrients and removing carbon dioxide.
Major veins and arteries of the body
Superior vena cava- return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.
Inferior Vena Cava- carries deoxygenated blood from the lower half of the body to the right atrium of the heart.
Left and right pulmonary veins
Left and right pulmonary arteries
functional differences between blood vessel types
Arteries- Carry blood away from heart: oxygenated except for pulmonary circulation and umbilical vessels of fetus
Capillaries- Direct contact with tissue cells; directly serve cellular needs, microscopic vessels
Blood Vessels- delivery system of dynamic structures that begin and ends at heart
Veins- carries blood toward the heart; deoxygenated except in pulmonary circulation and umbilical vessels of fetus
All vessels consist of lumens
walls of all vessels have 3 layers:
Tunica intima- innermost layer (contact with blood )
Tunica Media- middle layer composed mostly of smooth muscle and sheets of elastin bulkiest layer responsible for maintainingblood flow and blood pressure
Tunica externa- outermost layer of wall
Cardiac cycle and the ECG
The cardiac cycle describes the mechanical events associated with blood flow through the heart, consists of the events occuring during one heartbeat
An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a medical test that detects heart problems by measuring the electrical activity generated by the heart as it contracts.
Disorders of the
High blood pressure- A condition in which the force of the blood against the artery walls is too high.
Heart Attack- A blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle.
Coronary artery disease- Damage or disease in the heart's major blood vessels.