UNIT 5: HOW EFFECTIVE WAS THE U.S @ STOPPING THE SPREAD OF COMMUNISM?**…
UNIT 5: HOW EFFECTIVE WAS THE U.S @ STOPPING THE SPREAD OF COMMUNISM?
Roots of Korean War
Korea had been taken over by Japan until end of WW11 1945.
USSR defeated the Japanese in the North of Korea U.S defeat the Japanese in the South of Korea
The North is run by communist Kim II Sung, the South is run by Capitalist Syngman Rhee.
Korea's neighbor, China become communist in 1949, making Americans worry about the "Domino Theory".
In 1950, North Korea invades the South and takes over almost all of Korea.
President Truman sends warships advisers and supplies to South.
The Mess at the United Nations
Max Arthur wants to invade China with use of Nuclear weapons, but president Truman disagree and removes Mac Arthur from position after arguments.
United Nation or United States War?
18 countries were involved in the Korean War, most foreign troops were American
Military commander, General Mac Arthur was American.
Cuba is being led by General Fulgencio Batista, a cruel dictator that was supported by the U.S
Cuba saw extremely high poverty and unemployment under Batista
Batista allowed the U.S to dominate and profit off of the Cuban economy.
1953, Fidel Castro begins a 5 year revolution against Batista, which gains the support of the Cuban people and ends with victory in 1959.
After Castro begins to nationalize wealthy Cuban and American businesses, the U.S decides to take action against him
The U.S places a trade Embargo on Cuba
1961, the C.I.A launches the Bay if Pigs invasion to overthrow Castro.
Cuban Missile Crisis (OUTCOME)
1962, the USSR's Nikita Khrushchev begins building Nuclear Missile launch sites in Cuba.
President Kennedy announces the Cuban blockade to prevent the USSR from delivering weapons to the island.
This showdown is the closet the U.S and USSR ever come to a Nuclear War.
Ultimately, Khrushchev stops the shipments to Cuba and removes the missiles, while Kennedy also removes U.S missile from bases inTurkey and finally Cuba remains a communist country up to the present day.
The outcome of this was President Kennedy kept removal of missile in Turkey a secret to make it look like the U.S "won" the Cuban Missile Crisis.
1870's French Colonize Indochina
A. 70 years of French colonial rule B.Europeans had been here for over 400 years C. Viet Minh, freedom fighters aligned with Ho Chi Minh seek independence for Vietnam.
1941- Japan takes control of Vietnam
Viet Minh continue to fight for independence, Japan leaves upon losing WWII, French try to reassert control.
In 1954, Viet Minh win independence, Geneva Accords signed to end war, Vietnam divided in half. Unfortunately, the French were being helped by the U.S continues to fight communism.
1955: U.S backs Ngo Dinh Diem in the South (Puppet)
Diem is the extremely anti- communist, and wants to unite Vietnam.
He is disliked by many Vietnamese, had a little control over South Vietnam
Diem is finally assassinated.
Viet Cong Tactics
The Vietcong wanted to put the U.S down and make them not want to fight any longer, Not to actually win the fight.
Tunnel Complexes more than 150 miles of tunnels, these are used to avoid the bombs of the U.S, also used to hide after a firefight.
Use of Peasants/Farmers: The VC were ordered to be friendly with the peasants they would give them supplies, hide weapons and soldiers. - The VC also terrified the peasants so they would work for them, killing those who did not aid the VC.
Hanging onto American Belts- This tactic involved fighting extremely close to the U.S so their bombers and artillery could not be used. - The U.S was not going to bomb their own men.
Bomby Traps- These were designed to frighten the U.S soldiers and lower morale. - To lessen the numbers of fighters available, very safe tool since the VC does not have to be around to inflict damage. - Very cheap to make.
Strategic Hamlets, tactic used to separate Vietcong from the Farmers so the "enemy" could be easily found, the problem was Vietcong often tricked U.S troops and got into safe zones.
Operation Rolling Thunder: Massive bombing campaign that was supposed to disrupt the supplies of weapons, however many people were killed and the U.S look bad and raising opposition to the War.
Search and Destroy- Tactic where the U.S would fly small numbers of troops out to Vietcong locations then destroy everything the Vietcong needed to continue fighting.
Chemical Weapons-Tactic used to combat the natural advantage of the jungle environment that the Vietcong had over U.S troops. But the problem was innocent people were harmed with these tactics, it made the U.S look like monsters to the people of Vietnam.
U.S WithDraw From Vietnam
The U.S left Vietnam because it was a very expensive war. Worth around 950 billion in 2011 US dollars.
Loss of US lives- One out of every 10 Americans who served in Vietnam was a casualty.
25 percent of soldiers were drafted they did not choose to go to War.
Tent Offensive is an attack by the communists that took over 100's of towns in South Vietnam. Although the US wins them back, this shows that the communists are not going to quit the war, ever!
Vietnamization is the plan of Richard Nixon to train the Vietnamese to fight the communists without the helper of the U.S. This is seen as a way to continue the fight, without loss of US life equals protests at a much cheaper cost.