P-Foreign Policy 1890-1912 x (Motives for Imperialism (Progressive…
P-Foreign Policy 1890-1912 x
Motives for Imperialism
Harold Evans -1998 argued that for economic reasons the US did not need an empire as it was carrying out huge trade with Britain..
Walter McDougall 1997- Us imperialism was a desire to improve the lives of non-Americans and export American Values. Also be argued that they wanted to dominate the world creating countries in their own image
Missionary work by 'White-Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPS) to help lesser-races often followed by colonization.
Need for new markets
William A. Williams 1950's- for new markets however this could have been achieved by and open door policy.
Niall Ferguson 2003- Depression of 1893 stimulated desires for new marked and surplus of farming needed markets.
End of Westward Expansion
Fredrick Jack Turner 1893 -Westward Expansion was a form of imperialism that ended so America returned its views elsewhere
William Langer- took countries to prevent others from doing so and also wanted to copy European powers so took advantage of predominant position in Latin America and Monroe Doctrine.
Foreign Policy 1890's
America more involved in 1890's
Germany wanted it as a trading post
Civil war in 1898 American and British vs German signed Tripartite convention
Britain relinquished rights of Samoa for German Pacific Islands
West Samoa= German colony
Eastern Samoa-USA protectorate ( naval station)
Annexed in 1898 ( brought into existing territories ie USA )
Stopping station form US to Japan
Since 1975 US imported Hawaiian sugar duty free so Hawaii dependent on US economy by 1890's 1/20 were American
1887 Pear Harbor was built but in 1890 McKinley Tariff took away duty on raw sugar which badly effected Hawaii economy
When King died the queen set up rebellion and America came to help in 3 days stopped the rebels.
People scared America would become and imperial power= Europeans
End of Westward Expansion and need for market
Wanted independence from Spain but at the end was given to America in the Treat of Paris 1898 for 20 mil
Civilize the island with Christianity -
- fear of Europe
Could not be returned to Spain or Filipinos as they could not govern themselves
USA fought 4 year war of subjugation.
US wanted to extend political and trade links also exploit South and Central America while raising living conditions.
Was Spanish but invaded in the America-Spanish War in 1898 and was given under the Organic act of 1900
Britain and Venezuela were in disputed about boarders . Us demanded they go to arbitration ( third person to solve it). Originally rejected after the threat of 54 vessels it was accepted and decided in Venezuela's favor.
1898 US went to war with Spain over Cuba
Cuba was close enough for the Monroe Doctrine to apply
Cuba was owned by Spain
Cuba wanted independence
Letter leaked from Spanish Minister saying McKinley was 'a weak bidder for the admiration of the crowd'
On a friendly visit to Havana a Us ship blew up. Spanish Investigation said it was a design fault and US said it was a bomb. Eventually it was found it was a design fault -to late.
Reasons for US involvement
US wanted to join the ranks of the Great Powers
'Yellow Press'-sensational journalism of 1890'S ie Hearst and Pulitzer
Economic motives , US business sugar .Also directly after 1893 depression.
Closeness of Cuba
Cant control and independent Cuba threaten American interest
some say he was reluctant to go to war and was eventually persuaded by congress
Walter LaFeber argued McKinley favored war as he believed Spain would be easy to defeat and it would increase trade
April 1898 US launched a double attack on Spanish Terriroty in Cuba Phillipines and manila.
Combination of land forces ad naval blockade meant span surrendered in under 3 weeks.
Lot of Hostility between Cuban freedom fighters and USA
US ignored the Cuban contribution to the winning of the War
Treaty of Paris 1898
Cuban was independant but America has Guantanamo Bay
Spain lost its lats parts of Americagiving them Puerto Rico
USe got the Phillipenes
Spain also gave the US Guam
US has protected and proided for its economic interests in cuba and under the Monroe Doctrine
Foreign and Imperial Policy 1901-12
After Spanish American War Roosevelt anounced a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Roosevelt Corollary- US armed intervention allowed in Latin America if it needed to preent financial or political collapse. Set up a USA police
April 1898 the Teller MAendment promised the US would not annex the island and would give them independace
US belived Cuba wasnt ready to rule themselves and Maerica had commercial interests there so they introduced the Platt amendment
Platt Amendment- gave US control over Cuban finance and commerce , the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and a naval base in Cuba in 1901
Final Cuban treaty signed in 1903 made a new political system and economy dependent on US. This followed with the takeoer of land by American business
Forces returened between 1906-1909 and then 1912.
Canal would connect the Pacific to the Atlantic so wouldnt hae to travel all the way around America
As early as 1860's William Steward started negotiations but stopped by congress
1881 the french engineer who did the suez started building Panemar but ran into financial difficultys
Roosevelts took over the rights to the canal but oeral columbia asked for 25 mil he would not pay
1903 Panema fought for independance , the Us troops supported them and they won and accepted a offer of 10 mil. It was compleated in 1914
Close to America with a canal site and high leel of economic interest.
Threatened in 1909 by anti-American president Zelaya who cancelled privalages for US mining.
The US inserted a pro-American president Diaz and gave them huge loans so they were financially dependant
In 3 years they had to send troops to quell a revolution and set up a protectorate for 10 years
1903 the republic defaulted on a repayment of 40 mil
Roosevelt did not want to invade so took contol in 1904 of the customs revenue to pay off debt
'Big Stick Policy' Amerrican policing system
USA and the Far East
Unlike europe did not want to expand territory into china
1899 he open door Policy with a note asking states to respect each other
1900 Boxer rebellion against forgieners . USA sent a small number of troops
Second note for open door policy= equal and impartial trade in all parts of China and US governemnt would protect property and lives of citizens of US living in China
Annexation of Phillipenes
immegration in Hawaii and US stopped by racist laws in 1900
Russo-Japanese War 1904-05 that was negotiated to an end in the Treaty of new Hampshire and Japanese balmed Roosevelet for not making Russia pay war indemity ( compensation to victors)
1908 Root-Takahira agreement said they would respect each others intersts in china
The Open door Policy was confirmed for the USA who allowed Japan to annex Korea.
Interest in Japan and China for economic reasons to develop markets
Beginning = isolationist with not much support for imperial expansion
End =By 1912 US had first major conflict in 100 yrs and extending influence in Pacific that lead to support for imperial expansion