Coastal Landscapes in the UK 2 (Transportation (Solution - when minerals…
Coastal Landscapes in the UK 2
Methods of hard and soft engineering
dune regeneration, managed retreat and beach replenishment
gabions, sea wall and rock armour
Solution - when minerals in rocks like chalk and limestone are dissolved in seawater and then carried in solution.
Traction - large boulders are dragged along the sea bed by the current.
Suspension - small particles are suspended in the flow of the water.
Saltation - small rocks are bounced along the sea bed.
Longshore drift: the prevailing wind meets the beach at an angle, so the swash moves up the beach at that same angle, the backwash moves at a right angle to the beach, moving sediment along.
longshore drift deposits sand and shingle in the sea so a beach juts out
a bar/spit that connects the shore to an island
formed when a spit joins two headlands together, a lagoon forms behind it
Why does it happen?
or when there is a prevailing wind at an angle, causing longshore drift
the water is shallow
waves start to slow down, so lose energy
Sediment is put down/dropped.
Costs and benefits of hard and soft engineering
the use of technology and man-made things
unattractive to begin with, rust after 5-10 years
cheap, flexible, merges into landscape, improves drainage
costs £50,000 per 100m
wire cages filled with rocks to support cliffs or provide a buffer for the sea
coastal management that works with nature
eg. dune regeneration
costs around £200-2000 per 100m
time consuming, easily damaged by storms
cheap, maintains natural environment, aesthetically pleasing = tourists
large sand dunes act as a barrier, grass planted to stabilize dunes and fences
Coastal Managment - Holderness
Hard engineering used
£6.6 million spent on rock armour
61 tons of rock armour
strong prevailing winds
Effects of erosion
loss of habitat on Spurn head
loss of land
increased erosion south of Mappleton but less actually in Mappleton
caravan park at Great Cowden started to erode
Homes on the cliffs were colllapsing
Gas terminal at Easington at risk, which supplies 25% of the UK's gas
When you give a grid reference, always give the easting first: "Along the corridor and up the stairs".
On an OS map each grid square is 1 km x 1 km or 1 sq km.